The Roots of Terrorism Are Found in Brutality of Shattered Childhood

Daniel Goleman
New York Times
September 2, 1986

"The route of the terrorist from childhood to a specific violent act is emerging in rich detail from new research. Researchers have found the making of a terrorist involves a unique interplay between the beliefs and dynamic of the terrorist group and the psychological makeup of its members.

The most important new data come from detailed interviews with and psychological tests of more than 500 members of terrorist organizations who are still at large, and with more than 100 who have been imprisoned for terrorist attacks in this country and abroad. Many of those studied were first interviewed in a study of children growing up in an atmosphere of violence, as in Northern Ireland."

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Their predictions of doom, while disputed by some private defense and foreign policy analysts, reflect a consensus Pentagon view that even as the U.S. winds down its military...

U.S. intelligence agencies estimate it could take Beijing at least two more years 'to produce a modern force capable of defeating a moderate-size adversary.'

"High profile attacks, such as Aurora, Stuxnet and Zeus leave us in no doubt that cross border cyber attacks are real and not just plots for action movies. They also indicate a significant game change. Last month the Pentagon declared cyberspace is a new warfare domain. And even though that could be offensive or defensive, perhaps the best starting offense might be the best defense."

"American diplomats led a walkout at the U.N. General Assembly Thursday as Iran's President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad fiercely attacked the United States and major West European nations as 'arrogant powers' ruled by greed and eager for military adventurism.

The two U.S. diplomats, who specialize in the Middle East, were followed out of the chamber by diplomats from more than 30 countries....

"North Korea will not give up its nuclear weapons in exchange for economic aid. The United States will have to abandon its hostility towards Pyongyang first, North Korea’s KCNA news agency announced today.

'Unless the United States ends its hostile policy and threats towards our Republic, we shall never abandon our nuclear weapons even if the earth should split,' it said.

...

"The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has said that medium-level uranium enrichment had begun at the Fordo plant near Qom in northern Iran.

Tehran has said it plans to carry out uranium enrichment there for purely peaceful purposes. The West argues Iran is building a nuclear weapons capacity.

In November 2011 the IAEA released its latest report on Iran's nuclear...

"China's military is developing electromagnetic pulse weapons that Beijing plans to use against U.S. aircraft carriers in any future conflict over Taiwan, according to an intelligence report."

"Hackers in China are the world’s 'most active and persistent perpetrators' of economic cyber espionage, and Russian spy agencies are actively seeking to steal U.S. technology, according to a report released by American intelligence services on Thursday.

The 2011 report by the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive (ONCIX) included a focus on cyber threats for the first...

"Mitt Romney and Republicans are taking sharp issue with President Obama's assertion earlier this week that leftist Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez was not much a security threat to the United States."

"A week ago Ron Paul tried to convey how the ever-tightening sanctions on Iran--which may soon include an embargo on its oil--look from an Iranian point of view: It's as if China were to blockade the Gulf of Mexico, he said--'an act of war'.

This is sheer conjecture; Ron Paul is no expert on Iran. But now someone who does have relevant credentials has weighed in, and the picture he...

"RSA has traced the attack against its network, resulting in the compromise of sensitive information relating to its two-factor SecurID authentication system, to two groups, working for one nation state."

"Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has warned that missiles could be deployed on the EU's borders if the US pursues its missile defence plans. In a televised statement, he said 'modern weapons systems' could be deployed in Kaliningrad if Russia, the US and Nato failed to come to a deal."

"RSA Security is offering to provide security monitoring or replace its well-known SecurID tokens—devices used by millions of corporate workers to securely log on to their computers—'for virtually every customer we have,' the company's Chairman Art Coviello said in an interview.

In a letter to customers Monday, the EMC Corp. unit openly acknowledged for the first time that intruders had...

"Security experts say Google, along with dozens of other major companies, was the victim of a concerted espionage effort that they say came from within China and exploited flaws in e-mail attachments to get into networks of major financial and technology firms.

At least 34 companies, including Adobe, Symantec, Yahoo and Dow Chemical, were attacked, according to industry sources. On...

"Cyber attacks may not be a new phenomenon but the recent successes scored against high-profile targets including CitiGroup, Google, RSA and government contractors such as Lockheed Martin underscore the targets' current failure to block security threats enabled by the Internet. Malicious hackers use the very same technology that enables online banking, entertainment and myriad other...

"A massive advanced persistent threat (APT)-type attack campaign has been ongoing worldwide for five years that has stolen intellectual property from 70 government agencies, international corporations, nonprofits, and others in 14 countries, according to a new published report in Vanity Fair.

The so-called 'Operation Shady Rat,' which is detailed in a new report by McAfee, has mostly...

"Whether you are for or against combat drones, they're here to stay. In fact, their use will only expand. You might be disturbed by this news, but that doesn't change the reality. Even if the United States and its allies stopped using and building drones, Pandora's Box has already been opened. Fifty other nations are now developing combat drones of their own. That's what happens with useful...

"Researchers who launched an experimental cyber attack caused a generator to self-destruct, alarming the federal government and electrical industry about what might happen if such an attack were carried out on a larger scale, CNN has learned."

"The Spanish police said on Friday that they had apprehended three men suspected of computer hacking in connection with recent attacks on Sony’s PlayStation Network as well as corporate and government Web sites around the world.

The National Police identified the three as the local leadership of the shadowy international network of computer hackers known as Anonymous, which has claimed...

"More malware is now coming out of China than from any other country, according to a new report from Symantec.

The United States still leads the world in the number of malware attacks sent from mail servers. Symantec's report found U.S. mail servers responsible for distributing 36.6 percent of all global malware in March, followed by China at 17.8 percent and Romania at 16.5 percent....

"STRATCOM asked me to talk on the question: Will advanced conventional capabilities undermine or enhance deterrence.... My speech is reproduced below."

"Fears of an April Fools' Day attack by the so-called 'Conficker' worm – fears that were confirmed this week when 700 computers at the University of Utah were attacked – raised the profile of the potential for cyber-criminals to enter networks and siphon off private information."

"A nuclear weapon explodes high above the US, unleashing a deadly electromagnetic pulse (EMP) that almost instantly knocks out much of our electrical grid. The electronic control systems in our water, oil, and gas distribution systems fail, and other infrastructure such as telecommunications and transport grind to a halt. While it would be far too high up in the atmosphere (40–400 kilometers)...

"The IAEA report and annex released today provides disturbing and 'credible' additional details regarding Iranian nuclear warhead development efforts that have allowed Tehran to acquire some of the expertise needed to build nuclear weapons, should it decide to do so.

The broad outline in the IAEA’s latest report on the military dimensions of Iran’s program is not new, but rather,...

"The diplomatic ties between Iran and Venezuela go back almost fifty years and until recently amounted to little more than the routine exchange of diplomats. With the election of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in 2005 the relationship dramatically changed. Today I believe it is fair to say they have created a flourishing partnership rooted in a shared anti-American rhetoric and policy...

"Last year, the U.S. Navy bought 59,000 microchips for use in everything from missiles to transponders and all of them turned out to be counterfeits from China.

Wired reports the chips weren't only low-quality fakes, they had been made with a 'back-door' and could have been remotely shut down at any time.

If left undiscovered the result could have rendered useless U.S. missiles...

"Following up on Newt Gingrich and his assessment of threats, I see that the New York Times has a William J. Broad front-pager on Gingrich's obsession with the possibility of adversaries using an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) against the United States...

I'm neither a security expert nor a rocket scientist. After reading Broad's article, the Space Review annalysis, the rebuttal to that...

"In one of the most egregious violations of the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech seen in quite some time, Tarek Menanna, an American Muslim, was convicted this week in a federal court in Boston and then sentenced yesterday to 17 years in prison. He was found guilty of supporting Al Qaeda (by virtue of translating Terrorists' documents into English and expressing 'sympathetic views'...

"When China’s president, Hu Jintao, visits here next week, the exchange rate between Chinese and American currency will inevitably become a big topic of conversation.

China has been holding down the value of its currency, the renminbi, for years, making Chinese exports to the United States cheaper and American exports to China more expensive. The renminbi’s recent rise has been too...

"A group calling itself Lulz Security embarked on a nihilistic hacking spree against high-profile corporations and government agencies. Yesterday morning, it was boasting of its latest coup – bringing down the websites of the Brazilian government and the president – an action marked with a Twitter message beginning 'TANGO DOWN.'"

"The route of the terrorist from childhood to a specific violent act is emerging in rich detail from new research. Researchers have found the making of a terrorist involves a unique interplay between the beliefs and dynamic of the terrorist group and the psychological makeup of its members.

The most important new data come from detailed interviews with and psychological tests of more...

"Milton Friedman once said that there is 'nothing so permanent as a temporary government program.' I would add to this: there is nothing so permanent as a war on terror. Ask the British or the Israelis or any other government which has decided to wage a similar war.

The 2001 signing of the PATRIOT Act marked the beginning of a 'temporary' and unofficial state of emergency for the...

"Pakistan and India are upgrading their Cyber War capabilities, partly by calling on allies for help. India has become a big customer of Israeli military equipment, and this now includes assistance in protecting themselves from Cyber War threats, especially from Pakistan. Meanwhile, Pakistan has found China to be a useful source of Cyber War technology. While Israel has some of the best...

"Throughout history new technologies have revolutionised warfare, sometimes abruptly, sometimes only gradually: think of the chariot, gunpowder, aircraft, radar and nuclear fission. So it has been with information technology. Computers and the internet have transformed economies and given Western armies great advantages, such as the ability to send remotely piloted aircraft across the world to...

An attack by a single Iranian nuclear missile could have a catastrophic impact on the United States by causing an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) over a portion of the country.

"On Feb. 27, a diplomatic process will begin in Geneva that could result in a new treaty giving the United Nations unprecedented powers over the Internet."

"USCYBERCOM is responsible for planning, coordinating, integrating, synchronizing, and directing activities to operate and defend the Department of Defense information networks and when directed, conducts full-spectrum military cyberspace operations (in accordance with all applicable laws and regulations) in order to ensure U.S. and allied freedom of action in cyberspace, while denying the...

"Sources have confirmed that the U.S. Department of Defense over recent months purchased 59,000 microchips to use in Navy equipment that control everything from missiles to transponders, according to report in Joseph Farah’s G2 Bulletin.

But all of the chips turned out to be cheap knock-offs from China, and they ultimately were not installed, according to sources."

"American intelligence agencies, in an unusually blunt public criticism of China and Russia, reported to Congress on Thursday that those two foreign governments steal valuable American technology over the Internet as a matter of national policy."

"China almost certainly would mount a cyberattack on the U.S. in the event of a conflict, and the U.S. has no clear policy to determine how to respond appropriately, a congressional advisory panel is set to warn on Thursday."

"U.S. intelligence spending in the past year fell to $75.4 billion, the second straight year of decline since such budgets reached their highest level in the aftermath of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, according to figures released today."

"'A quarrel in a far-away country between people of whom we know nothing.'"

"Trade sanctions are meant to destabilize regimes, forcing them to compromise with the aggressing government. Sanctions do this by threatening the regime's survivability, by undermining any support it may have amongst the population. These are the intentions of the American government, supposedly as a result of Iran's 'dangerous' nuclear program. (Ironically, sanctions may only increase the...

"While Beijing pushed for Pyongyang to open up to foreign investors, Washington announced new sanctions that would inevitably impede such plans. Beijing is concerned that North Korea’s deep economic crisis will compound the political instability surrounding any handover of power. According to the Chinese media, discussions between Kim and Chinese leaders focussed on Beijing’s demand for...

"Venezuela's President Hugo Chavez returned to Caracas last Sunday after completing a whirlwind tour of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Iran, Syria, Libya, and Portugal. Chavez's goal was to advance agreements 'to accelerate the fall of imperialist (read American) hegemony and the birth of the new world of equilibrium and peace,' as he stated in Damascus. While the rhetoric is familiar, the...

"The Venezuelan security debacle is as enlightening as it is tragic. It offers a cautionary tale about the limits of easy explanations, prescriptions, and predictions when it comes to crime. Standard narratives about high crime in Latin America put income inequality at the heart of the problem, and higher human-development levels at the core of the solution. Such assessments are not concocted...

"Followers of cancer-stricken strongman Hugo Chávez are stunned after nearly 3 million Venezuelans voted Sunday to select a unity candidate to compete in presidential elections scheduled for October. Venezuelan democrats are unified and optimistic today, but Chávez and his henchmen already have made their moves to hold on to power at all costs. If the opposition has any real hope of defeating...

"Operation Aurora, the moniker given to the attacks on Google and several others, has developed into a security nightmare and political chess game. With so many questions left unanswered, there is still no clear proof that Aurora was a government attack. In truth, public information points not to a sanctioned attack by the Chinese government, but Malware kits and criminals keeping with...

"In reality, any threat from China will take a far less antiquated [atomic bomb] form. Just as it is already a world leader in future technologies - such as solar panels - so it has invested deeply in cyberwarfare, which it routinely uses to steal sensitive industrial materials such as blueprints.

If it ever clashed with the US (and a naval conflict in the North Pacific is the most...

A meeting of the International Telecommunications Union threatened to raise new Internet regulations that could prove potentially dangerous to personal freedoms in many countries.

"Conficker, also known as Downadup or Kido, is the latest super virus to spread around the Internet and has security experts in a panic. When last we checked, about a week ago, Conficker had already spread to 9 million PCs, with little sign of slowing. Now it has infected at least 10 million PCs and experts believe there may be up to 350 million vulnerable computers out there.

The worm...

"Just consider what one single, isolated attack on American soil more than a decade ago did to Sullivan, Packer and company: the desire for violence which that one attack 11 years ago unleashed is seemingly boundless by time or intensity. Given the ongoing American quest for violence from that one-day attack, just imagine the impact which continuous attacks over the course of a full decade...

"Anonymous, understood to be a loose-knit group of internet activists, tweeted: 'We are glad to tell you that mastercard.com is down and it's confirmed.'

Another message read: 'There are some things WikiLeaks can't do. For everything else, there's Operation Payback.'"

"Details of a highly organized, sustained campaign of computerized attacks against businesses and governments across 14 countries were disclosed yesterday by the security company McAfee.

The attacks stretch back almost five years, and ranged in duration from one month to 28 months. They affected 32 types of organizations, including government agencies and defense, construction,...

"Consumers in the U.S. might have heard of ZTE because of a recent U.S. congressional report that called the Chinese company a national security threat."

Chart or Graph

ReuseThisBag.com offers this very detailed infographic on 9/11 about what happened on that tragic day as well as what Americans think about the attacks today.

"Major credit cards, gaming platforms, governments, banks and news organizations have all been the victims of cyber attacks."

A graph detailing the area affected by an EMP at differing heights.

"China's concerted nuclear expansion began with the National Development and Reform Commission's (NDRC's) Tenth Economic Plan for the years 2001-2005."

"Some companies completely refuse to produce their products in or transfer their intellectual properties to countries they believe pose a threat."

The chart shows the United States having by far the most cyber-attacks, followed by China and then Germany.

An explanation of China's currency manipulation. China is paid for goods in U.S. dollars, with which China eventually buys U.S. debt, which is ultimately used to buy more Chinese goods.

This map gives us a picture of cyber-attacks by country.

The rapid growth in technology coupled with the expanding amount of information on the Internet has opened the floodgates for cyber-criminals.

"Certain countries are emerging as clear sources of threats to sensitive data, in particular to intellectual property."

"Prime Minister Vladimir Putin's popularity rose after a national televised address on December 3, curbing a 5-week slide, according to a poll by the Public Opinion Foundation."

Pakistan has received considerable Chinese and North Korean technology and other assistance for its ballistic missile program. As the title suggests, this map demonstrates how far Pakistan claims their missiles can reach.

The military branch in charge of China’s nuclear arsenal has acknowledged building a network of tunnels more than 3,000 miles long. For the past three years, a team of Georgetown University students has studied those tunnels, led by their professor, a former senior Pentagon strategist.

"When asked which country represents the greatest danger to the U.S., more Americans volunteer Iran (28%) than name any other country, though nearly as many (22%) name China."

Here's a full list of all GhostNet infections around the world.

"Here’s an updated version of our Cyber Attacks graphic showing a world map and chart illustrating targeted cyber attacks on more than 70 companies, government bodies and organizations...."

"The following graphic lists the ten most/least corrupt countries based on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index for 2011. The Corruption Perception Index assigns countries and territories with scores between 0 (highly corrupt) and 10 (very clean)."

This timeline provides a history of some of the most famous hacking cases since the 1960s.

"Work to build a nuclear power plant at Bushehr began in 1974, but came to a halt in 1979 with the Islamic revolution."

This chart provides an overview of the types and ranges of missiles Iran possesses.

This map shows the location of various sites important to Iran's nuclear program. A heavy water plant at Arak, a nuclear power station at Bushehr, an uranium conversion plant at Isfahan, and an uranium enrichment plant at Natanz make up some of the important areas.

In just one month during 2011 American companies faced a plethora of serious cyber-attacks.

"Nearly 5 percent of North Korea’s entire population is active-duty military personnel, a rate more than double that of other Asian nations."

This image shows where a number of nuclear proliferation facilities are located in North Korea.

"North Korea was formed after WWII and the end of the Japanese occupation. It was split at the 28th parallel as part of a UN arrangement, to be administered by the US in the South ... and the the Soviet Union in the North since the two couldn’t agree on how to run it."

"In total, about 30 countries have sought nuclear weapons, and ten are known to have succeeded."

This map describes the various locations in Pakistan that relate to uranium enrichment and other nuclear processing facilities.

Moms and members of Gen-Y were given the following information on EMP's and asked to give their opinion on the likelihood of it occurring.

"Details of a highly organized, sustained campaign of computerized attacks against businesses and governments across 14 countries were disclosed...by the security company McAfee."

"Operation Shady RAT shares many similarities with the Operation Aurora and Night Dragon large-scale compromises also uncovered by researchers at the security firm, most notably in that Chinese hackers are again the prime suspects."

"Some hackers use software and hardware to express themselves creatively—either solving entirely novel technical challenges or finding new ways to skin the same old cats."

"[P]ublicly available information and occasional leaks make it possible to make best estimates about the size and composition of the national nuclear weapon stockpiles...."

"[S]ome believe the government is just itching to find an excuse to adopt unprecedented Internet monitoring powers, and cyber-war would be just the ticket."

"A vast electronic spying operation has infiltrated computers and has stolen documents from hundreds of government and private offices around the world, including those of the Dalai Lama, Canadian researchers have concluded."

This bar graph shows the top 10 nations which both produce and distribute as well as receive the most malware.

As of 2009, the U.S. and Russia had roughly the same number of military personnel, with about 1.5 million each. Both are sizably outnumbered by China.

"Analysis of projections made by the U.S. intelligence community during the past decade for the growth in Chinese ICBM warheads shows that they have so far been too much too soon (see figure ... [above])."

"Among those who are aware of the recent tensions between the U.S. and Iran over Iran’s nuclear program and disputes in the Persian Gulf, a majority say that it is more important to take a firm stand against Iranian actions (54%) than to avoid a military conflict with Iran (39%)."

This map shows the location of the 10 worst terrorist attacks of all time. It also includes the number of deaths and injuries in each one.

Analysis Report White Paper

"This Report sets forth the Commission’s analysis of the U.S.-China relationship in the topical areas designated by the Commission’s Congressional mandate; these are the areas the Commission is to consider, and about which it is to make recommendations to the Congress. These include China’s proliferation practices; the qualitative and quantitative nature of economic transfers of United States...

"China’s rapid rise as a regional political and economic power with growing global influence has significant implications for the Asia-Pacific region and the world. The United States welcomes the rise of a stable, peaceful, and prosperous China, and encourages China to participate responsibly in world affairs by taking on a greater share of the burden for the stability, resilience, and growth...

"During the early afternoon of August 31, 1998, North Korea tested what is known in the West as the Taep’o-dong space launch vehicle; flying a ballistic trajectory, this rocket can reach intercontinental ranges. The launch clearly changed the terms of the debate over a number of missile proliferation issues, including the long-running and contentious argument over deployment of national...

"This juxtaposition of the activities of Iran's formal and informal foreign policy leadership illustrates the complexity of Iranian diplomacy. Both Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini, the regime's founder, and the current Supreme Leader have used personal envoys and trusted agents to conduct a parallel foreign policy outside the confines of the foreign ministry and beyond the oversight of the...

During the latter half of the 20th century, U.S. defense efforts were driven by the need to respond to the threat posed by the Soviet Union. While the Soviet threat was considerable, the U.S. response was facilitated by the focus on a single adversary. The current situation is quite different. Today, the U.S. faces a disturbingly diverse set of national security challenges ranging from Somali...

While, in general terms, the asymmetrical threat concept describes how the weak might battle the strong, discussions diverge when discussing asymmetrical threats from states versus those posed by non-state actors.

This article explains Chinese military thought that supports their cyberattack activities.

Chinese strategies rely on electrons in unanticipated ways to fulfill stratagems such as 'kill with a borrowed sword' or 'exhaust the enemy at the gate and attack him at your ease.'

Written for freshmen members of Congress, the introduction states, "This briefing book attempts to provide you with the foundation to improve your knowledge of intelligence issues. The memos in this book give you important basic information about the Intelligence Community and outline the central issue."

The publication covers a wide variety of topics surrounding intelligence and...

"A series of high-profile events in 2010 and 2011 highlighted the increasing and multifaceted threat of cyberattacks. These include the espionage hacks on Google and Western energy companies (WSJ), the Stuxnet (VanityFair) infiltration of Iranian nuclear sites, and the targeting of government networks in South Korea (BBC). U.S. cybersecurity policy continues to evolve to meet these challenges...

"But Iran will reach another threshold by acquiring nuclear weapons—the ability to keep America and its allies in constant fear. For a state that has formed its national security policy largely around terrorism, that is quite an accomplishment."

"Assorted 'cyber attacks' have attracted much attention in the past few months. One headline in this genre recently proclaimed 'Anonymous Declares War on Orlando.' This is wrong on so many levels that it almost defies analysis. A more precise accounting would show that there have been no cyber wars and perhaps two or three cyber attacks since the Internet first appeared.

The most ironic...

"China’s Foreign Minister was right to say that China and the U.S. are not in a cyberwar. It is not in China’s interest to attack the U.S. or destabilize Wall Street, as the high degree of economic interdependence means an attack would harm China as much as the U.S. But this is not the same as saying all is well in cyberspace. There is real risk to both the bilateral relationship and to...

"On April 8, a front page article was published in the Wall Street Journal on the dangers posed by cyberspies to the U.S. electrical grid. According to senior intelligence officers who spoke with the Journal, 'Cyberspies have penetrated the U.S. electrical grid and left behind software programs that could be used to disrupt the system.' No action has been taken so far to disrupt the electrical...

"The American military faces a growing threat of potentially fatal equipment failure—and even foreign espionage—because of counterfeit computer components used in warplanes, ships, and communication networks. Fake microchips flow from unruly bazaars in rural China to dubious kitchen-table brokers in the U.S. and into complex weapons. Senior Pentagon officials publicly play down the danger, but...

"The ideological and intellectual foundation for modern radical Islamism is therefore an uncompromisingly suspicious and hostile perspective regarding the nature of the relationship between an Islamic society and the West. This common thread binds all radical Islamist groups today, including the radicals within the ruling Iranian clergy."

"The cost of damage from the most extreme solar event has been estimated at $1 to $2 trillion with a recovery time of four to ten years, ... while the average yearly cost of installing equipment to mitigate an EMP event is estimated at less than 20 cents per year for the average residential customer."

"Hackers have attacked America’s defense establishment, as well as companies from Google to Morgan Stanley to security giant RSA, and fingers point to China as the culprit. The author gets an exclusive look at the raging cyber-war—Operation Aurora! Operation Shady rat!—and learns why Washington has been slow to fight back."

"The Russian cyber crime underground has evolved into a sophisticated, if loose-knit community with its own periodical literature and cultural mores. The 'Russian hacker' has become a stereotype. But as with many stereotypes, there is some truth involved. Russia does have a large population of talented hackers that are under less pressure from the law than their counterparts elsewhere. Western...

The vulnerabilities of both civilian and military electrical devices are in need of improved protection against a potential EMP attack.

"Looking back at key events in this US‐Iran chronicle is helpful in understanding some of the traditional causes of friction and mistrust between Tehran and Washington."

The U.S. Army War College held a three-day workshop on dealing with threats, such as EMP or cyber attacks, that could impact the electrical grid, which is critical to national defense.

"With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein’s regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S. forces present in Iraq."

"Although it is possible that negotiations between the leading powers in the international community and Iran may produce a settlement to the vexing issue of Iran's nuclear program, it is more likely that those negotiations will fail. If that happens, U.S. policymakers face a set of highly imperfect options."

"In the ensuing debate within Iranian foreign policy circles, a central question has been whether or not the new regional milieu should be considered a national security plus or minus."

"This paper describes what an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is and how a nuclear weapon creates a HEMP. Next, a brief description of the effect of a HEMP attack on electrical and electronic systems is followed by an overview of the implications of the failure of these systems on the nation’s critical infrastructure and elements of national power. A discussion of the risks of such an attack...

"If a non-nuclear weapon state plans to manufacture nuclear weapons, it must perform the following:

(i) conduct research on the design of nuclear weapons;

(ii) acquire a sufficient quantity of weapon-usable fissile material; and

(iii) integrate its nuclear weapons with its delivery systems (missiles or aircraft). The third step is sometimes referred to as the '...

"The United States has long recognized the dangers inherent in the spread of nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons, and missiles. This report, which analyzes NBC weapons programs potential threat patterns around the globe, is updated as needed.

The total number of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons in the world is shrinking as the major powers scale back their...

"On January 14, 2010 McAfee Labs identified a zero-day vulnerability in Microsoft Internet Explorer that was used as an entry point for Operation Aurora to exploit Google and at least 20 other companies. Microsoft has since issued a security bulletin and patch."

"Descriptively we are still in the first decade of the post-Cold War era, but conceptually the security preoccupations are already very different from the possibilities envisaged in the first few years after the Berlin Wall was brought down. In analysing what went wrong, I give priority to the implications for arms control policy debates and the choices for the United States, which, as the...

"Today, the Obama administration still speaks of its interest in serious talks, but its Iran policy emphasizes pressure more than engagement."

This report presents the results of the Commission’s assessment of the effects of a high altitude electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack on our critical national infrastructures and provides recommendations for their mitigation.

While most argue about the technology of rogue states and also that of the missile defense system itself, this piece address the sociopolitical advances that have been made with these rogue states that will help deter them from actually attacking the United States.

"Russia and the United States have been unable to establish a common understanding in their bilateral diplomacy on most aspects of cybersecurity. In spite of a 1998 declaration of their interest in joint leadership of global responses to cybersecurity challenges, the two countries have acted more often than not like enemies guarding sensitive national security secrets rather than as allies...

"The Kremlin is using anti-Americanism as a strategic tool for pursuing domestic and foreign policy goals. Through media controlled or owned by the state, the Russian government is deliberately spreading poisonous anti-U.S. propaganda at home and abroad, blaming many of Russia's problems on the West, particularly the United States. The partial success of this policy exposes a number of serious...

"The U.S. officially designates four countries as state sponsors of terrorism--Iran, Syria, Cuba, and Sudan. It is high time to add Venezuela to the list. Far from being merely a populist showman and bully, Hugo Chávez is a reckless leader who collaborates with Colombian narcoterrorists and Islamist terrorists, pals around with brutal Iranian dictator Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, is a virulent anti-...

"The United States, as the world's strongest economy and also the most technically advanced, is the center of the world's research and development and, therefore, the principle target of this new wave of economic espionage. Since the end of the Cold War, however, there has been a virtual feeding frenzy of economic and industrial espionage by other nations - both friend and foe alike - to steal...

Space warfare will be an integrated part of battle planning by the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) in any future conflict.

"In the wake of the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the U.S., the threat of militant Islamic terrorism -- rooted in the Middle East and South Asia -- has taken center stage. While these extremely violent religious extremists represent a minority view, their threat is real. As pointed out by RAND's Bruce Hoffman, in 1980 two out of 64 groups were categorized as largely religious in...

Margolis argues that North Korea was a much larger threat to U.S. security than Iraq.

"The purpose of this report is two-fold: 1. To present an assessment of the state of economic crime in the United States, and; 2. Based on that assessment, to indicate areas where additional research, legislative action, training, cooperation between law enforcement and industry, and international cooperation are required."

"Latin America is often near the bottom of U.S counter-terrorism priorities. No terrorist attacks against the United States have originated from there or been carried out by Latin American nationals. Yet there are several reasons that recent trends in Latin America pose significant threats to the United States."

This article addresses three aspects of the civilian and military use of China’s Internet.

"The increased presence of Chinese telecommunications products and services in the American marketplace is the result of bilateral investment between the United States and China. Chinese companies have offered U.S. investors (investment banks, venture firms, business investors, and others) opportunities to balance risk and gain potentially higher rates of return by participating in the world’s...

"The 1979 Islamic Revolution brought a radical, theocratic regime to power in Iran. The government's extremist rhetoric incited fear throughout the region and even the West. Nevertheless, Iran found itself severely isolated on the international scene and unable to effectively pursue its goal of preeminence in the Persian Gulf."

"Computer network exploitation represents the leading edge of signals intelligence in the information age. The proliferation of computer systems throughout governments, businesses, and civic organizations represents a boon for would-be cyber spies.

Awareness of cyber vulnerabilities, and even basic information security practices, is in its infancy, and largely absent in most...

"As we face one of the worst recessions in recent memory, protecting a company’s critical information assets like intellectual property and sensitive data has never been more important, yet challenging. A single breach or loss can cause irreparable financial damage to a company’s reputation, its share price and customer confidence. It’s a risk companies can’t afford in the current climate.

...

"The United States traditionally has had close relations with Venezuela, the fourth major supplier of foreign oil to the United States, but there has been friction with the Chávez government. U.S. officials have expressed concerns about human rights, Venezuela’s military arms purchases, its relations with Cuba and Iran, and its efforts to export its brand of populism to other Latin American...

"In an assessment on Global Water Security, U.S. Intelligence Community predicts that exploding populations in developing countries coupled with climate change would be naturally transformed into drought, floods and lack of fresh water."

Video/Podcast/Media

"The United Nations nuclear watchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency, has offered its strongest evidence yet that Iran is seeking to develop nuclear weapons. Iran condemned the report, and maintains that its nuclear program is entirely peaceful."

"In the past decade, Iran has increased its influence in Latin America. Considering Iran’s long history of bad actions, this increased activity in the Western Hemisphere should give Americans pause. This year alone, Iran refused to abandon its nuclear ambitions, its military sat idly by as Iranian students stormed a British embassy, it attempted to assassinate a Saudi ambassador in Washington...

This podcast weighs the pros and cons of American foreign policy toward Iran, discussing whether or not a full-blown attack or a policy of deterrence would be a wiser path to tread.

This podcast discusses the strained relationship between Russia and the United States. Carpenter declares, "it's important to recognize that the United States and Russia have a lot of interests in common." Carpenter goes on to explain Russia's important role in deterring the Iranian missile program, as well as many other areas where the U.S. would benefit from a positive relationship with...

"Venezuela's caudillo [strongman] President Hugo Chavez has his sights set on an extended stay in executive office well beyond the possibilities of even a second Obama Administration. Like his hero Fidel Castro, Chavez aspires to remain a thorn in the side for multiple U.S. presidents. With his Bolivarian Revolution and 'socialism for the 21st Century,' Chavez has harnessed Venezuela's...

This presentation describes Iran's connection to various Latin American countries such as Venezuela. The speakers discuss the Iranian nuclear threat and how Iranian interaction with other countries could affect the nation's nuclear progress.

"National Security Agency whistle blowers Thomas Drake, former senior official; Kirk Wiebe, former senior analyst; and William Binney, former technical director, return to 'Viewpoint' to talk about their allegations that the NSA has conducted illegal domestic surveillance. All three men are providing evidence in a lawsuit by the Electronic Frontier Foundation against the NSA.

Drake says...

"Charlie Rose and Erica Hill speak with Steve Kroft about a cyber attack that crippled the Iranian nuclear program for a time."

"Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad addressed the United Nation's General Assembly.

Delegates from the US, Israel and EU stormed out as Iran's leader was speaking."

"Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez pledged closer cooperation on Monday, vowing to fight poverty and imperialism.

The two leaders signed a series of accords in the areas of industry, science, technology and politics, the state-run AVN news agency reported. Sitting side by side in front of a room full of reporters, they presented a united front in...

"Acclaimed writer and political scholar Christopher Hitchens may just be the only writer to have recently visited Iran, Iraq and North Korea. Hitchens - known for his keen wit, sharp political insight and often controversial opinions - examines the differences between the countries once linked as the 'axis of evil,' while revealing intriguing connections between the nations."

"In this address, Bruce examined the future of cyber war and cyber security. Mr. Schneier explored the current debate on the threat of cyber war, asking whether or not the threat had been over-stated. He then explored the range of attacks that have taken place, including the Latvian DOS attack and the Stuxnet worm. The address concluded with an exploration of the future of international...

Sen. Wyden (OR-R) and the Senate Intelligence Committee, ask an intelligence panel about Iran's nuclear threat and U.S. terrorists threats, particularly with regard to the theft of 'intellectual property' and 'economic secrets.' Bottom line: US. must expand intelligence and military agency policies to prevent 'corporate espionage.'

In late 2011, the Asian Arms Control Project at Georgetown University released a report on the nature of China's underground tunnels. Declaring these tunnels to be a "key component of ... [China's] burgeoning nuclear deterrence infrastructure," this video uses a variety of Chinese video footage to explain the historical development of the tunnels and China's missile program.

A panel of experts discuss the state of cyber-security in the United States and certain measures that may be taken to improve the system. At time 1:18:00 the discussion becomes especially relevant.

"The U.S. government is about to declare a new war, but this time the enemy is a virtual one. A string of attacks on government websites by hackers has driven American policy-makers into a state of high-alert over a so-called terrorist threat. But some doubt the danger even exists, as RT's Lucy Kafanov reports."

Analyst Marko Papic explains two separate statements made Wednesday that give Russia momentum against U.S. plans for ballistic missile defense in Europe.

This propaganda film celebrates the achievements, technological advancement and physical fitness of the North Korean army. It paints the United States as an imperialist aggressor against which North Korea has had to defend itself. The film also extols the role of the army in building and supporting socialism in the economic, social and cultural spheres in order to achieve "the people's...

"On September 20th Hugo Chevas gave a speech at the United Nation. The title of the speech was 'Rise Up Against the Empire'."

"Iran has test-fired a surface-to-surface cruise missile in a naval drill, after the country threatened to close the strategic Strait of Hormuz, the passageway for 40 per cent of the world's oil supply, if sanctions were imposed on its crude exports."

This video is a recording of the House of Representatives' Oversight Committee's hearing on November 7, 2007 which focused on Iran's nuclear program and possible U.S. responses to this program.

"Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Venezuela's Hugo Chavez mocked US [for] its move to expel a Venezuelan diplomat at the start of a visit to four left-leaning Latin American nations."

"In an attempt to display his statesmanship potential, Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney wades into deep foreign policy waters discussing Iraq, North Korea and Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin."

Explore what could happen when a high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) occurs and cripples our electrical grid.

On May 25, 2009, North Korea announced that it had successfully conducted its second nuclear test, having expelled all international nuclear inspectors as a response to a tightening of sanctions by the UN Security Council.

President Obama unveils his new plan to fight cyber-crime. At time 09:35 he announces his plan for CYBERCOM, a new branch of the Defense Department that will be solely devoted to combating cyber-warfare and intellectual property theft.

"Professor Howard Schmidt, ISF President and one time security adviser to the White House discusses how and why corporate espionage is taking place."

"The Russian military says it has successfully tested the world's most powerful non-nuclear bomb. The device is said to be as potent as an atomic explosion, but without radioactive fallout. Until now, the U.S. had the most powerful vacuum bomb, which was tested in 2003."

"Iran, Syria, Venezuela, China, India, United Arab Emirates and several other countries have shown interest in Club-K. Though a powerful and dangerous weapon, Club-K is quite expensive ($10-20 million/shipping crate) and therefore more easily kept out of the hands of smaller and more belligerent terrorist groups (unless they are state-sponsored, as some are). This is the Club-K promotional...

"Russia has announced the development of a stand-alone nuclear warhead capable of penetrating any existing or projecting missile defense system. The revelation comes just as the Russian government has ratified the START nuclear arms reduction treaty."

This video shows a nuclear warhead detonating above the earth's atmosphere.

CNN offers a brief video demonstrating the devastating effects a cyber-attack could have on America's electrical grid.

What can the Stuxnet worm accomplish? Who can use it? Does it threaten Americans?

Cato Institute Vice President for Defense and Foreign Policy Studies Ted Galen Carpenter evaluated the U.S./China relationship during Policy Day held May 14, 2010.

In this interview, Maseh Zarif explains why containing and deterring Iran is an expensive and difficult course of action for the United States to pursue.

Primary Document

Annual Address to the Federal Assembly by Russian President Vladimir Putin. Putin outlines goals for the country in the years ahead and reassures previous national goals.

This document from the State Department details some major facts on North Korea, including information on population, geography, and economics.

This paper presents a comprehensive open source assessment of China’s capability to conduct computer network operations (CNO) both during peacetime and periods of conflict.

The appropriate response to the EMP threat is a balance of prevention, planning, training, maintaining situational awareness, protection, and preparations for recovery.

This report presents the results of the Commission's assessment of the effects of a high altitude electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack on our critical national infrastructures and provides recommendations for their mitigation.

Dr. Tafoya defines cyber-terrorism and cyber-warfare, detailing the tactics used and the preventative measures the U.S. government takes to avoid such attacks.

"Cyberwarfare raises issues of growing national interest and concern. Cyberwarfare can be used to describe various aspects of defending and attacking information and computer networks in cyberspace, as well as denying an adversary's ability to do the same. Some major problems encountered with cyber attacks, in particular, are the difficulty in determining the origin and nature of the attack...

This handout outlines the goals and strategies of the Department of Defense in 2010.

"The Administration continues to invest in the Nation’s military servicemembers and their families and provides them with the training, equipment, and infrastructure needed to maintain military readiness. The President's 2012 Budget for the Department of Defense (DOD) reflects that commitment, proposing $553 billion - an increase of $22 billion above the 2010 appropriation."

This act intends to protect American government and businesses from any intellectual property theft or espionage.

"Amends the Federal Power Act to direct the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to issue rules or orders to protect critical electric infrastructure from cyber security vulnerabilities."

"The House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (herein referred to as 'the Committee') initiated this investigation in November 2011 to inquire into the counterintelligence and security threat posed by Chinese telecommunications companies doing business in the United States."

"This National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) assesses the status of Iran’s nuclear program, and the program’s outlook over the next 10 years. This time frame is more appropriate for estimating capabilities than intentions and foreign reactions, which are more difficult to estimate over a decade. In presenting the Intelligence Community’s assessment of Iranian nuclear...

"The Obama Administration has not changed the Bush Administration’s characterization of Iran as a 'profound threat to U.S. national security interests,' a perception generated not only by Iran’s nuclear program but also by its military assistance to armed groups in Iraq and Afghanistan, to the Palestinian group Hamas, and to Lebanese Hezbollah. In its first year,...

"U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder's announcement on Oct. 11 that a dual U.S.-Iranian citizen and a commander in Iran's Quds Force, the special-operations unit of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), had been charged in New York for their alleged roles in a plot to murder the Saudi ambassador to the United States, Adel al-Jubeir, represents a brazen escalation in Iran's struggle for...

China has made great progress in its pursuit of economic growth and development, which has allowed China to achieve higher living standards for the Chinese people and has increased China’s international profile.

"The Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation (hereinafter the Military Doctrine) is one of the fundamental strategic planning documents in the Russian Federation and constitutes a system of the views officially adopted in the state on preparations for armed defense and on the armed protection of the Russian Federation."

To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2012 for military activities of the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe military personnel strengths for such fiscal year....

This piece of legislation is cited as "AN ACT To promote the national security by providing for a Secretary of Defense; for a National Military Establishment; for a Department of the Army, a Department of the Navy, and a Department of the Air Force; and for the coordination of the activities of the National Military Establishment with other departments and agencies...

"North Korea has been among the most vexing and persistent problems in U.S. foreign policy in the post-cold war period. The United States has never had formal diplomatic relations with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (the official name for North Korea). Negotiations over North Korea’s nuclear weapons program have consumed the past three U.S. administrations, even as some analysts...

"The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) was opened for signature in 1968, and has nearly 190 Parties. The Treaty comprises legally binding non-proliferation commitments and is the basis for international cooperation on stopping the spread of nuclear weapons. The President in Prague on April 5 said that the basic bargain at the core of the Treaty is sound: 'countries with...

"At the dawn of the 21st Century, the United States now faces what could be called a Superpower Paradox. Our unrivaled supremacy in the conventional military arena is prompting adversaries to seek unconventional, asymmetric means to strike what they perceive as our Achilles heel.

At least 25 countries now possess—or are in the process of acquiring and developing—capabilities to inflict...

This is the sister bill of SOPA.

"Threats against the United States and Israel by Iranian President Ahmadinejad – coupled with advances in the Iranian nuclear weapons program, support for terror, and resistance to international negotiations on its nuclear program – demonstrate that Iran is a security threat to our nation that requires high caliber intelligence support. The seriousness of the Iranian threat has been amplified...

This site provides an extensive archive of the speeches delivered at the Democratic National Convention of 2008, sorted by speaker or topic.

The stated intention of this act was to protect intellectual property through increased governmental regulation of the Internet. It has not yet passed into law.

"Last month I convened an emergency meeting of my cabinet and top homeland security, intelligence and defense officials. Across the country trains had derailed, including one carrying industrial chemicals that exploded into a toxic cloud. Water treatment plants in several states had shut down, contaminating drinking water and causing Americans to fall ill.

Our nation, it appeared, was...

"During the Carter administration, Congress passed the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, which created a new federal court to approve electronic surveillance of citizens and resident aliens alleged to be acting on behalf of a foreign power. Until now, the FISA court granted surveillance authority if foreign intelligence was the primary purpose of an...

"The cyber environment provides unprecedented opportunities for adversarial activities and is particularly vulnerable because of the nation's heavy reliance on information systems. A strong and well-protected U.S. information infrastructure is critical to virtually every aspect of maintaining our nation's security. Trusted insiders as well as external adversaries are targeting the U.S....

"A BILL To amend the Federal Power Act to protect the bulk-power system and electric infrastructure critical to the defense and well-being of the United States against natural and manmade electromagnetic pulse ('EMP') threats and vulnerabilities."

"The emergence of amorphous and largely unknown terrorist individuals and groups operating independently (freelancers) and the new recruitment patterns of some groups, such as recruiting suicide commandos, female and child terrorists, and scientists capable of developing weapons of mass destruction, provide a measure of urgency to increasing our understanding of the psychological and...

"Chairman Chaffetz, Chairman Mack, Chairman Chabot, Ranking Member Tierney, Ranking Member Engel, Ranking Member Ackerman, distinguished members of the committees, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today to discuss Venezuela’s sanctionable activities."

One of the most important actions you and your colleagues can take to help us protect our intellectual property rights in China is to continue to call attention to the Chinese authorities that you consider the theft of US intellectual property a high priority.

Books

FAQs

Could cyber-attacks be used to cause physical damage? What other vulnerabilities might be exploited in a cyber-attack? Could an attack disrupt infrastructure such as power grids? All these questions and more are answered in the FAQ below.

Is the threat of an EMP a legitimate concern? What kind of infrastructural damage is an EMP capable of? How long would the consequences of such an attack last? All these questions and more will be answered in this FAQ.

One of the most serious threats to national security, individual privacy, and protection of one's assets comes from Intellectual Property (I.P.) espionage. What kind of information may be stolen? Who is or has the capability of engaging in effective I.P. espionage? Has this already happened? What can the United States do? All these questions and more are answered in this FAQ.

Iran has been talked about for decades. Relations between Iran and the United States have been tense since the early 1950s. Some believe that Iran poses an existential threat to the U.S.; others maintain that, despite its rhetoric, it is mostly harmless. Does Iran pose a significant threat? What are the sentiments of its leaders and its citizens? Do they agree? Is Iran working on a...

Missile defense. It's been talked about for decades, some of us even grew up watching Patriot missiles shoot down Iraqi Scud missiles in the first Gulf War. But where do things stand today? Is it still needed? Should I care? Those questions and more are answered in the FAQ below.

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