Opportunity Percentages by Sport

Independent Women's Forum
April 2003

The Independent Women's Forum notes that many feminists believe that women will take advantage of sport opportunities if they are available. Feminist organizations believe that the smaller amount of female athletes reflects a lack of opportunities, but as this chart shows, women have equal - and sometimes many more  - sports opportunities than men.

Library Topic
Library Topic: Title IX

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Quote Page

Quotes on Title IX and Civil Rights Act legislation from leading economists and politicians.

Commentary or Blog Post

Christina Sommers reports on President Obama’s resolve to expand Title IX into the scientific arena.

According to Shannon Blosser, Title IX played a key role in encouraging Grove City College to abolish federal funding from its campus.

Kasic describes the ways in which Title IX has developed over the years, particularly in regards to the quota system established by the OCR.

As this article explains, Title IX has had many ill-effects on collegiate sports since its implementation, and an expansion of its role into the academic arena could have extremely damaging effects on integral scientific fields.

Until now, the effects of Title IX have mostly been felt on college campuses. According to Jessica Gavora, supporters of Title IX are now trying to extend its influence into the nation’s high schools.

According to Kasic, both the men's and women's track teams at James Madison University were devastated at the news that the male team would be dismantled. Their pleas for reasonableness and rationality were met with unsympathetic insults from feminists.

This article describes the many interpretation difficulties that Title IX has encountered through the years. In short, the ambiguousness of Title IX has created chaos and opened the door to a wide range of ideological interpretation problems.

Larry Schweikart believes that Title IX has actually served to give American girls more negative than positive side effects.

This article advances this possibility by reporting on the move to personally speak with both sexes about their sports interest level.

Shannon Blosser explains how men’s athletic programs have been short-changed under the implications of Title IX.

Chart or Graph

"Although overall sports participation rates have grown for both males and females, girls’ and women’s participation still lags behind that of their male counterparts, and increases among females have remained stalled for the past five years."

Opportunities for girls and women in athletics have increased exponentially since the passage of Title IX.

For the 19 years represented (and assuming that the 71 percent net yield of survey returns was representative of the national trend), women’s programs increased across all NCAA divisions combined, by 1,658.

The Independent Women's Forum notes that many feminists believe that women will take advantage of sport opportunities if they are available.

This chart provides a brief overview of notable legal developments in the Title IX saga.

Analysis Report White Paper

Patricia Hausman discusses the increasing push to equalize gender participation in scientific degree areas. Hausman composes this piece around the findings of a National Academy of Sciences report which asserts that women need to be better represented in the mathematical and scientific arenas.

Arens believes that women have achieved many positive advances because of Title IX, but unfortunately, men have suffered under its same legislation, particularly with the advent of the Office of Civil Right’s interpretation regulations.

The increasing difficulties that Title IX posed for college athletics caused the Bush administration to seek for ways to bring more practicality to its implementation.

Kasic and Schuld begin their Title IX primer by declaring that “Title IX long ago ceased to be an effort to guarantee equal opportunities for all, and has instead become a crusade to impose quotas and gender preferences in schools."

Allison Kasic reports on the legality of single-sex education under Title IX and discusses the many benefits of single-sex education.

Although this piece praises the many advances the female sex has made in the last 35 years, it also portrays them as victims who are still suffering gender discrimination despite the efforts of Title IX.

Girls and women have made great strides in education since the passage of title IX. The days when girls were blatantly told that they couldn’t take shop or advanced math are, for the most part, gone.

Although Sabo concluded that Title IX did not have an ill-effect on male sports, the authors of this piece believe his data tells a different story. This piece breaks down some of the information from Sabo’s research.


In this podcast, Neal McCluskey describes the background of Title IX and the recent attempt to expand its reaches into academic areas such as science.

This clip discusses the materialization and implications of Title IX. Rizzuti specifically discusses Title IX's issue of "proportionality" and its effects on male sports such as wrestling.

The students and teachers in this video all agree that Title IX was a good piece of legislation to implement, but some wonder if it is still applicable in today's world.

Primary Document

Lisa Maatz extols the virtues of Title IX and the advances that it has made possible. One of Maatz’s chief concerns in this testimony has to do with the issue of sexual harassment.

"No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance..."

The authors present a variety of information on the attempts to incorporate gender equity in scientific and mathematical areas of study, particularly in federal agencies such as NASA, the Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation.




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