Spalding traces the roots of American progressives to German thinkers who believed in the "Administrative State." Here, government is controlled by administrators and "experts," rather than officials elected to represent the people. Spalding also notes that the Founders and the progressives differed in their view of the Constitution. Progressives believed in a "...
The Framers' Intent: John Adams, His Era, and the Fourth Amendment
Clancy provides a detailed background of 18th century debates on warrants and the Fourth Amendment. He specifically focuses on John Adams' contributions. He offers answers to the question of what protections the Founders would have understood the Fourth Amendment to offer. According to Clancy, "That jurisprudence offered a structured series of principles to regulate the search and seizure activities of that era and the Amendment was not merely a reaction to general warrants." He finds four specific activities governing reasonableness: "Probable Cause, certain procedures valued, certain objects valued and certain qualities in those objects valued: the right to be secure."
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