Patterns of Conflict in Pakistan: Implications for Policy

Mohammad Waseem
The Brookings Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World Working Paper, Number 5
January 2011

"Pakistan’s political instability today is in large measure due to the struggle between three major actors—the civilian wing of the state, the military, and the Islamists. Partition from British India and the migration that followed led to mobilization based on identity, a power structure that was eventually dominated by the military, and the weakening of democratic institutions and principles. Partition also led to an imbalance of power between Pakistan and India, which continues to shape internal Pakistani politics. Other regional developments, such as the Kashmir dispute with India, further partitioning of the state in 1971, the wars in Afghanistan, and the recent U.S.-led war on terror, have also affected Pakistan’s internal dynamics. The military constrained the authority of the constitutional state by assuming an informal but substantive role as the supreme political agent and influencing state policies and strategy. The state’s authority has also been threatened by the Islamic establishment which has, since the founding of the state, pressured the state to establish sharia, or Islamic law. Islamic militant discourse and strategy emerged during the wars in Afghanistan in the 1980s and 1990s and has since intensified."

Library Topic
Library Topic: Sharia

More About This Topic...

Click thumbnails below to view links

Quote Page

A foundational document to Islam, the Hadith plays a core role in the determination of Sharia law. "Hadith, as defined by Understanding Islam, is a narration of the words or acts of the Prophet, as perceived and transmitted by...

Much of the basis for Sharia law can be found in the Qur’an (Koran), which Muslims believe is God’s Word. Followers of Islam teach that the Qur’an was revealed by the archangel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad between 610 and 632 A.D. Muhammad memorized these revelations and recited them to his followers; they were eventually recorded in written form some time after the Prophet’s death. The...

Commentary or Blog Post

"Imagine Dodger Stadium full of loud and whooping fans cheering on, not baseball, but your weekly stoning and flogging of adulterers, thieves and other errant citizens of southern California.

This is America under Islamic law, or Shari'a, a system that everyone should fear. Or so, Alan Kornman, director of the United American Committee (UAC) thinks. He continues to fundraise for a...

"The former chief executive officer of the Dubai Islamic Bank was yesterday accused in a Dubai court of concealing a fraud leading to a loss to the bank of $490 million.

Local prosecutors have charged seven suspects, five businessmen and two former employees of the bank, of defrauding the bank of $490 million between 2004 and 2007, according to the report carried in Gulf News today."

Toby Young blogs about the Egyptian crisis involving President Mubarak and potential candidates for his replacement. One such group, he writes, is the Muslim Brotherhood, which is reported to have strong terrorist ties. The Brotherhood has said that if they are elected they will establish Sharia Law in Egypt. Young reveals his concern by citing an incident that occurred in Bangladesh involving...

This article reports the bombing of a Catholic church in Nigeria and the ensuing violence that followed.

"A secular economist would see little or no substantive distinction between the sharing of profit, sanctioned by Islamic law, and interest, which is not. Credit has a cost, and under perfect competition, this is the interest rate--the price at which lenders agree to supply the same amount of money that borrowers agree to borrow. Banks don't determine where that point is; they act only as...

"The debate over the trajectory of the Western sociopolitical system and its strained relations with Islam is the most pivotal of our time, as approaches decided upon today will impact billions not yet born. Two prelates in the ever more fractious Church of England provide a microcosm of this discourse."

"A federal judge in Michigan has declined to dismiss an ex-Marine's lawsuit that insurance giant AIG is using tax dollars to promote Islamic Sharia law and charities that may be funneling money to terrorist organizations. Just when you thought the government's massive bailout of AIG couldn't get more complicated or controversial. The facts of the case 'raise a...

"IN OCTOBER LAST YEAR, Amina Lawal, a northern Nigerian woman, was convicted of adultery after falling pregnant more than nine months after her divorce. Her sentence was to be stoned to death, but only after weaning her infant, the evidence of her offence. At the time of writing, this sentence is due to be carried out some time next year.

Amina Lawal’s plight has attracted remarkable...

This post reflects on the West's disturbance at the "corporal punishment" Sharia law often inflicts on its followers. The author declares that "[s]ince sharia is their call to arms, there needs to be a clear and concerted effort to get mainstream ulema to get together and show the Taliban on Islamic terms that the kinds of measures they are following are nothing more than medieval tribal...

In this series of articles, Spencer discusses the verses of the Koran, using Muslim commentaries and seeks to "explain how mainstream Muslims who study the Qur’an will understand any given passage, and what its import might be for non-Muslims."

"Islamic banking practices can teach us important lessons in the wake of the global financial crisis, writes La Trobe University's Dr Hayat Khan."

"Conservatives and liberals have denounced Islamic courts as poor substitutes for British jurisprudence."

"There can be no reasonable argument against removing Talibanesque requirements that women wear burqas. But Western lawmakers who compel women either to abandon the burqa or never appear legally in public are equally intolerant of women’s choices."

"'Islam isn’t in America to be equal to any other faith but to become dominant. The Koran, the Muslim book of scripture, should be the highest authority in America, and Islam the only accepted religion on Earth,' San Ramon Valley Herald reporter Lisa Gardiner wrote when summarizing the message of Council of American Islamic Relations (CAIR) founder Omar Ahmad to a Muslim audience in 1998....

"The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), headquartered in Washington, is perhaps the best-known and most controversial Muslim organization in North America. CAIR presents itself as an advocate for Muslims' civil rights and the spokesman for American Muslims. 'We are similar to a Muslim NAACP,' says its communications director, Ibrahim Hooper. ... Its official mission—'to enhance...

This article discusses the possibility of the resurrection of the ancient muslim Caliphate, whose aim would be to bring the world under Islamic dominion. Raymond Ibrahim states clearly that if the West desires to avoid this possibility it must act now, while it has the upper hand and before it is too late to act. While he says this is the only option, he also realizes the West has no way to...

This article discusses the study of sharia by women in Afghanistan. It attempts to assess whether schools for women, which were previously illegal under the Taliban, are actually a double-edged sword due to their strict religious nature. 

"The insolvency of an Islamic mortgage lender in Canada may hinder the growth of sharia-compliant finance in North America, where the industry has struggled to gain traction in the absence of a supportive regulatory framework."

"Canadian Islamists who have been trying to bring in Sharia into Canada, so far without success, have now chosen another route - Islamic banking.

According to Tarek Fatah, founder of the Muslim Canadian Congress, 'In 2003, we saw Islamists trying to sneak Sharia into Canada through the backdoor of Family Law and under the cover of Multiculturalism. Now, they seem to be taking a...

"Muslims are rising up against tyranny throughout the Arab world. They have ousted autocrats, consistently called for democracy, and inspired people from Beijing to Madison to rally for justice.

And yet, for some here in the homeland, Muslims are still the problem. Consider two campaigns recently launched from Washington, DC. The first is the upcoming Homeland Security Committee hearing...

"Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are three closely related religions. Because they all revere Abraham and certain other patriarchs mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures (the Torah), Christian Scriptures (Old and New Testaments) and Qur'an as their spiritual ancestors, they are sometimes called Abrahamic religions.

The Baha'i Faith is sometimes also included in this grouping. Christians...

"Interest paid to depositors on savings by western banks is considered a loan with interest and is not allowed under Islamic financial principles. However, the mutual ownership and equal distribution of profits typical among financial cooperatives may mitigate some restrictions under that law and make credit unions attractive for Islamic savers and borrowers, not only in developing countries,...

In this piece, Mark Durie takes a look at the Islamic bent toward violence. Durie presents passages from the Koran which suggest that violence is supported and encouraged by Islamic sources and then compares this to his understanding of Christian teachings.

"Aceh, the devoutly Islamic and semi-autonomous region of Indonesia, recently banned tight pants for women. The government now requires women to wear skirts, is prohibiting shops from selling pants to women, and has even gone so far as to pass out 20,000 long skirts throughout the region. Acehnese police have also been dispatched to find women who are violating the law (insert appropriate '...

Cinnamon Stillwell describes a television broadcast covering two promoters of Sharia Law for women. The two people on the show were executive director and senior analyst for Gallup Poll Dalia Mogahed, and Nazreen Nawaz, member of Hizb ut Tahir. The two claimed most Islamic women desire Sharia Law because it provides a better life than any Western law. Nawaz even declared Western liberty was...

"Why is Islamism a threat to democracy? Because, according to its interpretations, sharia regulates every aspect of an individual’s life; moreover, because it is considered God’s law, no compromises are possible. The holistic nature of Islamist ideology makes it fundamentally incompatible with the self-criticism and exercise of free will necessary for human beings to form truly liberal and...

"As the fastest growing global super-power, China commands attention by all the super-powers and especially by the middle powers all over the world. Pundits ask whether Islamic Banking, which China looks upon favorably, will be a new challenge to Wall Street. Islamic banking will not pose a quantitative challenge in terms of nominal assets during our lifetime, but it has the potential to...

Jim Harper examines the H.R. 6975 Bill which passed before Congress and declares his belief that it is completely unnecessary. He writes, "It’s embarassing that a strong, free country like ours would even consider an idea like this," in regards to its requirements that an alien must declare he/she will not attempt to establish Sharia Law in the United States.

"The rise of anti-Muslim sentiment in America has brought with it a wave of largely-unsubstantiated suggestions from conservative media commentators and politicians that America is at risk of falling under the sway of Sharia law. ...

The outcry over Sharia law has been tied in large part to the controversy around the Islamic cultural center two blocks from the site of the Sept. 11...

Melanie Phillips blogs about the connection between Islamic religion and extremism. She claims there is a direct connection because extremists use the religion to fuel their power.

"Fear never goes out of fashion. Once again Republicans are dealing in fear instead of facts, and why not? It's worked in the past, and a nation that's locked in seemingly permanent recession and high unemployment may be in the market for some scapegoats.

Monday's Republican presidential debate was the opening salvo in a tawdry little war on truth that's likely to last until next...

"A community debate over religious freedom surfaced in Western Pennsylvania last week when Dutch feminist author Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a Somali refugee who has lived under the threat of death for denouncing her Muslim upbringing, made an appearance at the University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown.

Islamic leaders tried to block the lecture, which was sponsored through an endowment from the...

"The goals of maximizing profit and fulfilling a moral agenda conflict more often than they complement one another, and investors who want to put ethics first have turned out to be relatively few. 'Socially responsible investing,' or SRI, as it is called these days, has never captured the heart of Wall Street.

That could be changing. Finance that complies with Sharia, or Islamic law, is...

"Of all the Gulf’s Islamic banks, one stands out in the crowd.

Al Rajhi has quietly emerged as one of the world’s largest sharia-compliant lenders and has maintained slow but steady growth.

Against a backdrop of improved lending conditions in Saudi Arabia, the Arab world’s largest economy, the Riyadh-based bank reported a year-on-year increase in third-quarter profits of 18 per...

Emily Ekins focuses on potential presidential candidate Herman Cain and his statements about the Islamic faith and Muslims in general. She takes aim at the clear prejudice of his statements and at the lack of condemnation on either side of them.

"It's 20 years since Iran's religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini pronounced a death sentence on Salman Rushdie for 'insulting' Islam with his novel The Satanic Verses. The repercussions were profound - and are still being felt. Andrew Anthony traces the course of the affair, from book-burnings and firebombings to the dramatic impact it had on freedom of expression in a multicultural society."...

This piece advises American investors on the various investment options available in Islamic nations. One of the investment suggestions concerns "Sharia-compliant funds." According to Shumsky, "These mutual funds pick their investments in accordance with the religious rules that make up Sharia law, eschewing investments in industries deemed unethical, including gambling, alcohol and...

"In a recent article appearing in Tablet, Lee Smith takes former House speaker Newt Gingrich to task for the latter's focus on sharia (i.e., Islamic law). The thrust of Smith's argument is that sharia is a 'hopelessly abstract concept' and 'a highly idealized version of reality that has little basis in fact'; that sharia is 'a catchall phrase for legal principles that have rarely, if ever,...

"To better understand Islam, one must appreciate the thoroughly legalistic nature of the religion. According to sharia (Islamic law) every conceivable human act is categorised as being either forbidden, discouraged, permissible, recommended, or obligatory.

'Common sense' or 'universal opinion' has little to do with Islam's notions of right and wrong. Only what Allah (through the Quran)...

How can you respect a religion that forces women into polygamous marriages, mutilates their genitals, forbids them to drive cars and subjects them to the humiliation of "instant" divorce? In fact, none of these practices are Islamic at all.

"We all have regrets and one of mine is not undertaking an optional unit of study in Islamic banking as part of my MBA. No society can claim a monopoly on wisdom and humanity would benefit from a sharing of ideas across borders and cultures.

The credit crisis has shown that the West’s capitalist system is not perfect. The $64 question is: Can we learn anything from the East’s Islamic...

"Islamic banking is steadily moving into an increasing number of conventional financial systems.

It is expanding not only in nations with majority Muslim populations, but also in other countries where Muslims are a minority, such as the United Kingdom and Japan. Similarly, countries such as India, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Syria have recently granted, or are considering granting,...

"Muslim scholars say the Qur’an prohibits collecting interest on loans. But many banks, both global and local, have found clever ways to meet religious strictures. It’s a system that may be hypocritical, but also profitable."

"As big Western financial institutions have teetered one after the other in the crisis of recent weeks, another financial sector is gaining new confidence: Islamic banking.

Proponents of the ancient practice, which looks to sharia law for guidance and bans interest and trading in debt, have been promoting Islamic finance as a cure for the global financial meltdown."

When British banking giant HSBC Group (HBC) began offering mortgages carefully formulated to meet Islamic banking practices last year in Malaysia, it was surprised that more than half of its customers were non-Muslim. What drew these customers to alternative financing that conforms to the strict dictates of Islam? Bank officials say that competitive pricing makes their Muslim-friendly...

"A new IMF study compares the performance of Islamic banks and conventional banks during the recent financial crisis, and finds that Islamic banks, on average, showed stronger resilience during the global financial crisis."

"The notion of 'Islamic finance' was born during the tumultuous identity-politics years of the mid-twentieth century. Indian, Pakistani, and Arab thinkers contemplated independence from Britain, and independence of Pakistan from India, within a context of 'Islamic society.' Islam was assumed to inspire political, economic, and financial systems that are distinctive and independent of the...

"Islamic finance is booming. At least $500 billion in assets around the world are managed in accordance with Sharia, or Islamic law, and the sector is growing at more than 10% per year. In spirit, Islamic finance seeks to promote social justice by banning exploitative practices. In reality, this boils down to a set of prohibitions--on paying interest, on gambling with derivatives and options,...

Let us support the courageous Muslims who, often at great personal risk, are campaigning against religious extremism.

"Both Middle Eastern and Western banks spend much time analyzing Islamic financial law these days, as they create instruments that comply with religious rules. The spirit of Islamic finance--as opposed to the letter--often goes undiscussed.

Yet any review of religious texts, Friday sermons or contemporary debate on the subject shines light on Islamic finance's true intentions: infusing...

"An Obama administration strategy for building contacts in Muslim communities is taking heat from the left and the right, amid increasing concerns about homegrown Islamic terrorism.

Under the program, which extends one begun under President George W. Bush, U.S. law-enforcement officials meet frequently with Muslim groups to discuss their concerns about discrimination. The hope is that...

This piece explains how a particular investment company is following Sharia compliant principles of finance and dramatically succeeding. This piece then explains what types of investments are acceptable under Sharia law.

"One of the Quran’s main arguments for its own legitimacy is the claim that it "confirms the earlier Scriptures (Torah and Gospel)". Inspired by this, Muslims occasionally make the argument for the legitimacy of Islam by drawing out similarities between Islamic law and the instructions given in the previous Scriptures, specifically in the Law of Moses. Muslims often try to claim a continuity...

"The Pennsylvania State Director of American Atheists, Inc., Mr. Ernest Perce V., was assaulted by a Muslim while participating in a Halloween parade. Along with a Zombie Pope, Ernest was costumed as Zombie Muhammad. The assault was caught on video, the Muslim man admitted to his crime and charges were filed in what should have been an open-and-shut case. That’s not what happened, though....

This article describes the 2004 Ontario controversy over the attempt to "use Islamic sharia law in family disputes." Supporters of the proposal declared that "freedom of religion as guaranteed under Canada's Constitution means not only freedom to practise and propagate religion but also to be able to be governed by one's religious laws in all aspects of one's life." Opponents of the idea,...

"In the United States today, there is a system of courts which is just outside of the federal and state court systems, known as the American Indian Tribal Courts. The Tribal Courts deal with criminal, civil and family court issues, and have their own lawyers, judges, and court officials. The Muslim Community can learn from the experience of the American Indian Tribal Court System as we attempt...

"Attacks by Islamist militants and abuses by the Nigerian government have trapped civilians in 'a vicious cycle of violence,' Amnesty International said."

"There are many reasons to find problems with sharia law. In its full form, it contains numerous provisions that are barbaric and irreconcilable with any advanced society: stoning married adulterers, flogging the unmarried, throwing homosexuals from roofs or steep hills, amputating limbs for theft, and much more. But sharia is much wider than that. It moves seamlessly from the public to the...

"To help serve its Muslim members while adhering to their beliefs, North Jersey Federal Credit Union has designed an Islamic banking division.

Working closely with Islamic leaders and mosques to promote the new program, the $187 million CU in Totowa, N.J. is offering an NCUA-insured deposit program up to $500,000-$250,000 through the NCUA and an additional $250,000 through private...

"Ali, the author of Infidel, criticizes President Obama’s political rhetoric in the Middle East (June 2009) regarding better relations between America and the Muslim world. She argues that unless sharia is eliminated, then various aid programs to the Middle East, such as providing for female literacy, Muslims will not gain true freedom or rights. "

...

"A Muslim activist in Oklahoma City filed a lawsuit Thursday challenging a voter-approved measure that bars Oklahoma state judges from considering Shariah, the Islamic religious code based on the Koran and the Prophet Mohammed's teachings, in formulating rulings.

State Question 755, which passed Tuesday with 70% of the vote, declares 'the legal precepts of other nations or cultures' off...

"The world's attention may have wandered from Iran, but recent reports from the country reveal a government that is as willing as ever to suppress dissent and a judiciary that still plans to execute a woman saved from a stoning sentence last month."

"Pakistan has signed a peace deal with a Taleban group that will lead to the enforcement of the Islamic Sharia law in the restive Swat valley."

"A wave of devastating weekend assaults in Nigeria killed more than 150 people, underlying how religious and economic grievances are coalescing into a dangerous mix that threatens the country's stability—and reflects other African security challenges."

The article describes a situation in which a Saudi Arabian judge asked various hospitals about their ability to paralyze an individual because of his crime against another man. This follows the Sharia practice of "eye-for-an-eye" punishments.

NEW Tory chairman Sayeeda Warsi has been slammed by Islamic fundamentalists who warned she could be in physical danger if she visits Muslim communities.

"To Muslims the Koran is the very word of God, who spoke through the Angel Gabriel to Muhammad: 'This book is not to be doubted,' the Koran declares unequivocally at its beginning. Scholars and writers in Islamic countries who have ignored that warning have sometimes found themselves the target of death threats and violence, sending a chill through universities around the world.

Yet...

"When some American pundits call sharia, 'a growing threat to the United States,' Muslim Americans wonder what in the world are they talking about. [S]haria is overwhelmingly concerned with personal religious observance, not with constitutions and laws. All observant Muslims practice sharia. Defining sharia as a threat, therefore, is the same thing as saying that all observant Muslims are a...

"In a German case in which a Muslim, Moroccan-born 26-year-old mother of two was petitioning for an expedited divorce from a man who had beaten her and threatened her life, Judge Christa Datz-Winter denied the woman’s request, a woman who already had a restraining order on her husband after police were called last May because he attacked her. The reason for the injudicious divorce denial? The...

"Richard Thompson, TMLC President and Chief Counsel, commented, 'Muslims dominate the political and law enforcement process in Dearborn. It seems that police were more interested in placating the Mayor and Muslims than obeying our Constitution. Sharia law makes it a crime to preach the Gospel to Muslims. This is a classic example of stealth Jihad being waged right here in America. And it...

Applebaum comments on the archbishop of Canterbury declaring that integrating some aspects of Sharia law into the British legal system are “unavoidable.”

Volokh, a UCLA law professor, argues that it is acceptable for private contracts to require sharia-based dispute resolution. He states that the United States law has long provided for parties to turn to alternative dispute resolution mechanisms such as arbitration, including on the basis of secular or religious laws that some might consider unfair.

Nezar Hamze describes the misconception many Americans have concerning Islam and Sharia Law. He details reasons for why it is not a threat. He says politicians are only painting Sharia Law in a negative light to use as a campaign strategy for upcoming elections.

This article reports that the push for Sharia Law being enacted in Muslim Chechnya has increased Moscow's difficulties in the region. Islamic clerics in the area are gaining more and more control as they press for greater implementation of Sharia Law. Women in the area have reported increased harassment correlated with this development.

"On November 2, Sooner State voters overwhelmingly approved a referendum that directs courts to 'rely on federal and state law when deciding cases' and forbids 'courts from considering or using international law' or 'Sharia law.' Muneer Awad responded by filing suit, and Judge Micki Miles-LaGrange, a Clinton appointee, promptly issued a temporary restraining order, putting the people’s voice...

Cinnamon Stillwell describes the recent trend towards marginalizing radical Islamists. She mentions the growing trend by leading radical Islamist apologist John Esposito towards calling these radicals, merely "moderates." She concludes by saying, "Britain can serve as a cautionary tale for the West. Scholars who downplay the threats to democratic societies posed by the encroachments of Sharia...

"While this article is not exhaustive of the intricacies of the Islamic marriage contract, it is intended to provide a brief overview and understanding to legal practitioners. As the Muslim population grows within the United States, it will become increasingly important for lawyers to understand the intricacies of Islamic law and provide solutions to this emerging group of Americans that will...

"On October 28, 2009, Luqman Ameen Abdullah, an African American Muslim, was killed in a shootout with agents of the FBI in Detroit. The dead man was one of twelve individuals sought for firearms violations and conspiracy to engage in theft and fraud. But they were also members of a little-known Islamist network dedicated to the establishment, through violence if necessary, of an enclave on U....

"Brig Hossien Sajedinia, Tehran's police chief, said a national crackdown on opposition sympathisers would be extended to women who have been deemed to be violating the spirit of Islamic laws. He said: 'The public expects us to act firmly and swiftly if we see any social misbehaviour by women, and men, who defy our Islamic values. In some areas of north Tehran we can see many suntanned women...

This piece describes an attempt by the Tennessee legislature to ban the practice of Shariah law. The legislation was formed in an effort to prevent the "'cruel punishments [of Shariah] such as amputation and stoning as well as unequal treatment of women in inheritance, dress and independence.'" Concerns were raised, however, that the legislation violated the rights laid out in the First...

"The American Bar Association (ABA) has decided to undertake the fight for Sharia law. The ABA's Executive Counsel 'has organized a Task Force to review the legislation of 14 states -- Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nebraska, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah and Wyoming -- in which anti-Sharia legislation has been introduced.'

...

"Islamic finance is booming. There are at least $500 billion worth of Sharia-compliant assets globally, up from just $150 billion a decade ago. But just 20 men (and, yes, they are all men) are the gatekeepers to this lucrative realm. These are the top-tier Islamic scholars whose stamp of approval is required before the world's banks can market a new financial product as being consistent with...

"If you are not vitally concerned about the possibility of radical Muslims infiltrating the U.S. government and establishing a Taliban-style theocracy, then you are not a candidate for the GOP presidential nomination. In addition to talking about tax policy and Afghanistan, Republican candidates have also felt the need to speak out against the menace of 'sharia.'" Amy Sullivan goes on to say...

Andrew C. McCarthy discusses the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) and its potential to devolve into a rebirth of the old Islamic Caliphate. He describes the Caliphate: "The caliphate is an institution of imperial Islamic rule under sharia, Muslim law. Not content with empire, Islam anticipates global hegemony. Indeed, mainstream Islamic ideology declares that such hegemony is...

This brief article details a recent Islamic stoning. According to Gunlock, a thirteen-year-old girl was accused of adultery after reporting that she was raped by three men.

"A German scholar of ancient languages takes a new look at the sacred book of Islam. He maintains that it was created by Syro-Aramaic speaking Christians, in order to evangelize the Arabs. And he translates it in a new way."

This article describes the great contrasts within Turkey concerning religion and secular life:
"Turkey has become an important part of the dialogue about differences between the Muslim world and the West. With strong ties to both, Turkey seems to be making up its own rules. It is pursuing membership in the European Union, but also reaffirming ties with Middle Eastern countries. Its...

"A decision by the UK government to put on hold earlier plans for the first Islamic sovereign bond from a western country was criticized as a setback for the initiative that could have provided more security to a shaking economy."

"In the past year, a group of conservative pundits and analysts have identified Sharia, or Islamic religious law, as a growing threat to the United States. These pundits and analysts argue that the steady adoption of Sharia’s tenets is a strategy extremists are using to transform the United States into an Islamic state."

"American officials have privately backed Pakistan's 'Sharia law for peace' deal with Taliban militants in the Swat Valley despite publicly criticising it as a 'negative development'."

"It is widely believed that Muslim 'martyrs' enjoy rich sensual rewards on reaching paradise. A new study suggests they may be disappointed."

"Most Americans have no idea what it [Shariah] really means or stands for. But the deeds and rhetoric of some have produced a similar effect: shariah has come to constitute a red flag, even without the misrepresentations of so-called Islamophobes. Many Muslims dislike this logic and are actually as offended by it as some Americans will be by the insinuation that our flag can double as a symbol...

"Last week in Tennessee, a Republican legislator introduced a bill that would make following sharia — Islamic law — a felony, punishable by up to 15 years in prison. How such a law would be enforced is not clear; furthermore, it’s probably unconstitutional.

It is clear, though, that an anti-sharia movement is growing in the United States. Last year Oklahoma voters approved a measure...

Islam rejects lying in all forms. However, there are a few instances where even Islam allows lying for the sake of brotherhood, which I will discuss later. Lying is something that almost everyone does, both Muslims and non-Muslims alike.

Millions of Muslims think Shariah means the rule of law. Could they be right?

Chart or Graph

Muslims like to see their Shariah law as having come down to mankind from God while they see all other legal systems as being 'Man-made Laws'. They claim that it a complete and perfect system and guarantees them success, welfare and peace in this life on earth as well as life after death.

"The countries which apply, to some degree, Sharia law."

"This study analyzes the constitutional provisions currently in place concerning the relationship between religion and the state, freedom of religion or belief, and related human rights in predominantly Muslim countries." This study thus uses this chart to categorize each country's type of constitution.  

This article surveys sentiments of citizens Muslim countries, and in particular as this graph shows, the sentiments of Muslims on the topic of strict application of sharia law.

Overall, Muslim Americans are fairly traditional in their religious beliefs.

Muslim Americans hold liberal political views on questions about the size and scope of government. At the same time, however, they are socially conservative and supportive of a strong role for government in protecting morality.

"Muslims in the United States have distinctive religious beliefs and practices. Yet their overall approach to religion is not all that different from the way that U.S. Christians approach their faith.

Comparable numbers of Christians and Muslims in the United States say they attend religious services at least once a week (45% and 40%, respectively). Somewhat more Christians than Muslims...

Allowing Islam Sharia law to be recognized in courts in the United States, as potentially superseding Constitutional and democratically-based law.

A Gallup Poll showing various countries and their opinions on what role Sharia Law should take in legislation.

In a survey on economic and national security concerns, researchers questioned Moms and individuals in the Gen-Y age range about their views on "homegrown jihadist terrorists. A jihadist is a Muslim involved in a holy war of destruction targeted against those who do not share their religious beliefs."

These charts show the reactions and opinions of Moms and Gen-Y individuals on the compatibility of Islamic Sharia law with the American court system.

A U.S. Chapter of the Muslim Brotherhood was formed and has been in operation since the 1960s. Although the Brotherhood insists it is a peaceful organization that opposes the use of terrorism in order to further their objectives, a number of terrorist analysts argue that this organization is a breeding ground for jihadi and terrorist ideologies.

Survey participants were asked the following question: "Thinking now about the Muslim Brotherhood in respect to the United States. Do you agree or disagree that the Muslim Brotherhood should be permitted to operate or set up a branch for their organization within the United States?"

After reading this description of the Muslim Brotherhood, do you think the United States should agree to deal with the Muslim Brotherhood when negotiating with other countries where they have a strong political presence?"

After being informed about the Muslim Brotherhood, this survey asked participants why they thought "the United States should / should not deal with the Muslim Brotherhood in other countries where they have a strong political presence."

According to this chart, with the exception of four countries, the majority of Muslims want Islam to play a large role in politics.

Shariah Capital, Inc. creates and customizes Shariah-compliant financial products and platforms, and provides Shariah consulting and advisory services to financial institutions and investment firms with product initiatives directed to Islamic investors.

This chart shows the percentage of Turks who agree with certain conclusions about Sharia law.

"The graphic below looks at how a stoning occurs in accordance with the Iranian Penal Code."

"This study analyzes the constitutional provisions currently in place concerning the relationship between religion and the state, freedom of religion or belief, and related human rights in predominantly Muslim countries."

When a survey group consisting of Moms and individuals from Gen-Y was asked about their greatest national security concern, America's dependency on foreign oil was one of the highest.

This article surveys sentiments of citizens in Muslim countries, and in particular as this graph shows, the sentiments of Muslims on the topic of democracy as a form of government.

Majorities of Muslims in Lebanon, turkey and Jordan say that they do not have honest elections and lack the freedom to openly criticize the government. These perceptions are also widespread in Nigeria, Uzbekistan, Indonesia and Bangladesh. Many also complain that the judicial system does not treat everyone the same and that news organizations face government censorship.

Analysis Report White Paper

"We must realise that the Sharia is not just a legal system but also a way of life by which Muslim fundamentalists seek to regulate and control their entire religious, social, political, economic, and cultural actions, interactions and reactions even with non-Muslims."

"In Sections 1 and 2, the article shall provide a brief introduction to various notions of Islamic law as they exist today, as well as the common-law nature of Islamic jurisprudence to establish the possibility of finding a compromise that renders minor modifications of the existing juristic positions coherent."

"I was asked by ISNA to produce a short guide to Islamic Banking and Finance for the Muslims of North America. To keep this guide short, we had to define our target audience rather carefully. This introductory guide is meant to address the Muslim who is familiar with the fundamental tenets and sources of legislation in Islam."

This survey begins with basic definitions of Shariah and explanation of the origins and nature of the Shariah controversy in Western Europe, including review of the Shariah textual sources employed in Western Europe. Shariah in Islam has functioned historically through schools of Islamic law, or madhahib. Traditional Shariah is based on a recognised canon, some significant elements of which have been translated and published in English.

"Al-Ghazâlî (c.1055–1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mystics of Sunni Islam."

"The forbidden bay‘u al-gharar can best be translated as 'trading in risk'. In the face of risk, any trade would involve some degree of trading in risk, and thus jurists disagree over whether a specific contract is forbidden or not based on their varying assessments of whether the amount of risk is substantial or small."

"Ecclesiastical law has long been accepted as a form of civil arbitration in Western Democracies. The result of ecclesiastical trials is legally binding and enforceable. Nevertheless, the dangers associated with legal ecclesiastical rulings became manifest when Islamic groups pushed for the recognition of Sharia as a doctrine of arbitration."

"The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) was created as an 'organization that challenges stereotypes of Islam and Muslims,' ... a 'Washington-based Islamic advocacy group' ... and an 'organization dedicated to providing an Islamic perspective on issues of importance to the American public.' ... Prior to establishing CAIR, its founders observed that 'the core challenge [in America],...

"The Western legal system bases it[s] value system upon Judo-Christian values which emphasi[ze] the individual while Islam strongly advocates community. The very topic of this paper must attempt to deal with two completely different systems. Most from the West are familiar with their system, thus this paper will first attempt to help the reader understand Shariah."

Given the importance and attention devoted to the relationship between women's rights and Islam, to date surprisingly little comparative analysis has been generated about the relationship between domestic violence and shari'a. This study is an effort to redress this lacuna.

"Over the past half century, those facing legal conflicts have increasingly turned to private arbitration to resolve their disputes rather than resolving them through litigation...."

"This report addresses how, through means of actual physical violence, threats and intimidation, legal action, and political pressure, the emancipation of Muslim women is stunted if not ground to a halt."

"If the foundation of Islam is therefore rooted in tolerance and the acceptance of diversity, it is then a challenge to understand why those who claim to act in the name of the prophet in countries such as Nigeria should be involved in violent religious conflicts...."

"Over the last decade, Islamic banking has experienced global growth rates of 10-15 percent per annum, and has been moving into an increasing number of conventional financial systems at such a rapid pace that Islamic financial institutions are present today in over 51 countries. Despite this consistent growth, many supervisory authorities and finance practitioners remain unfamiliar with the...

"Beginning as the faith of a small community of believers in Arabia in the seventh century, Islam rapidly became one of the major world religions."

"Christianity and Islam share much common ground. Both trace their roots to Abraham. Both believe in prophecy, God's messengers (apostles), revelation, scripture, the resurrection of dead, and the centrality of religious community."

John L. Esposito and John. O. Voll discuss the various opinions and viewpoints about Islam and democracy from a Muslim perspective. They point out different facets to be considered and ultimately conclude that there can be such a thing as Islamic democracy.

"Whether Islamic values are compatible with the institutions of free societies is relevant most importantly for the future of Muslim countries. Yet it is also of immense practical relevance for the West, which has received substantial numbers of immigrants from Muslim countries. How should the West deal with them? How can Westerners be liberal in their immigration policies but protective of...

This article will examine the radical Islamist reaction to feminism, along with other related matters.

"Sharia, or Islamic law, influences the legal code in most Muslim countries. A movement to allow sharia to govern personal status law, a set of regulations that pertain to marriage, divorce, inheritance, and custody, is even expanding into the West."

"The rhetoric of Islamic banking – exemplified in this opening quote by one of the industry’s most prominent pioneers – is derived from its historical evolution as a model of two-tier silent partnership. In fact, Islamic banks have mimicked conventional bank assets – from receivables to bonds, with credit sale and lease-backed debt instruments. In the meantime, Islamic banks have continued to...

"Islamic finance is based on principles of shariah, or 'Islamic law.' Major principles of shariah are a ban on interest, a ban on contractual uncertainty, adherence to risk-sharing and profitsharing, promotion of ethical investments that enhance society, and asset-backing."

"The general public and many academics have several preconceived notions about Islamic Law. One such notion is that Islamic judges are bound by ancient and outdated rules of fixed punishments for all crimes. This paper explores that idea and looks at other myths in an attempt to present Islamic Law from a non-biased view of Sharia Law."

"This article is meant to shed some light upon the definition of Shari'a and fiqh and the relationship between them. It also helps us understand some of the important attributes of Shari'a and how these attributes distinguish it from any other value system."

"Hence, Shari`a arbitrage-based Islamic finance threatens to cause religious harm, by subverting Islamic Law, as well as worldly harm, by exposing the industry to abuse and scandal. In contrast, focusing on the spirit of Islamic law may allow Islamic finance to develop into good finance, which would allow it to abandon the 'Islamic' brand-name."

"The first-ever, nationwide, random sample survey of Muslim Americans finds them to be largely assimilated, happy with their lives, and moderate with respect to many of the issues that have divided Muslims and Westerners around the world."

"Since the United States was attacked on September 11, 2001, there have been many studies of Islamic groups, such al Qaeda, which oppose the United States and use violence against civilians. However there has been relatively little research into how these groups are viewed by the larger Muslim society from which they arise."

"Since 2009, acts of violence by the Islamist armed group known as Boko Haram have been carried out across northern and central Nigeria with increasing sophistication and deadliness."

"This paper surveys the application and perception of Islamic family law in the United States, and the impact of living in this intersection of legal authority on America's Muslim families and communities."

"Pakistan’s political instability today is in large measure due to the struggle between three major actors—the civilian wing of the state, the military, and the Islamists."

"[The Council] agreed to dissolve the marriage, and officially informed Amina of their decision. With their letter, she should be able to remarry in a country practicing Islamic law—for example, her native Pakistan. Should she remarry in England, she will be able to satisfy relatives and neighbors (and perhaps herself) that she has not sinned."

"So what is this ideology we label Islamic-Fascism? What are its sources, theories, aims, and who are its proponents? The answers to many of these questions can be found in a collection of violent Islamic thought called Qutbism."

This article discusses the Sharia arbitration debate in Ontario, Canada. The article states that no conclusion has been made regarding the issue because there are too many things to be considered.

"In February 2008, the Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams suggested in a speech at the Royal Courts of Justice in London that British Muslims who would like to avail themselves of Islamic law-based arbitration courts ... should be permitted to do so. ... Williams said, '. . .While there is no dispute about our common allegiance to the law of the land, that law still recognizes that...

A report examining past jihadists and their actions leading up to their performing jihad. The study concluded that a high adherence to Sharia within a mosque lead to a greater predispositions to violent actions and jihad.

This piece gives a thorough overview of Islamic Sharia law. According to the article, "Sharia law comes from a combination of sources including the Qur'an (the Muslim holy book), the Hadith (sayings and conduct of the prophet Muhammad) and fatwas (the rulings of Islamic scholars)." This report also includes a "personal view of Sharia" by Muslim adherent Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood.

The following report based on an 8 March 2010 Seminar on Sharia Law, ... research, interviews, and One Law for All case files, aims to provide evidence of the discriminatory nature of these courts and make recommendations for curtailing Sharia and religious tribunals on the basis that they work against and not for equality, and are incompatible with human rights.

Susie Steiner provides information on what Sharia law and decrees are, what a hadd offense is, the probable punishment scenario for a Nigerian woman who has been sentenced to death, and the types of sentences passed down previously in Nigeria for hadd offenses. She also assesses the likelihood that Sharia law will prevail in Nigeria.

"The reason for the justified and spontaneous outrage that followed the Archbishop of Canterbury’s call for the recognition of sharia law in 2008 was that many people intuitively felt that equality under the law is the bedrock of Western civilisation. Take it away and you disrupt the whole edifice."

"The facts are the facts: some judges are making decisions deferring to Shariah law even when those decisions conflict with Constitutional protections. This is a serious issue and should be a subject of public debate and engagement by policymakers."

"This study is the result of months of analysis, discussion and drafting by a group of top security policy experts concerned with the preeminent totalitarian threat of our time: the legal-political-military doctrine known within Islam as 'shariah.'"

This report provides a variety of charts and statistics gleaned from a survey of Moms and individuals from Generation Y. The research gives a glimpse into some of the deepest concerns American citizens are facing in 2011, including the economy and national security.

"With the objective of making a small contribution toward countering the first of these difficulties this publication primarily focuses upon a procedure recognized by Islam -- talaq-i-tafwid or the contractual delegation to the wife of the right to pronounce talaq on behalf of her husband in regard to her own marriage."

"The normative figure in Western feminism remains the liberal autonomous individual of modernity. ‘Other’ women are those who have their freedom to choose restricted. Typically, ‘other’ women are those burdened by culture and hindered by their communities from entering modernity."

"What challenges does Islamism pose domestically to the core principles of Western plural societies, particularly the United States?"

"This paper examines the performance of Islamic banks (IBs) and conventional banks (CBs) during the recent global crisis by looking at the impact of the crisis on profitability, credit and asset growth, and external ratings in a group of countries where the two types of banks have significant market share. Our analysis suggests that IBs have been affected differently than CBs. Factors related...

This piece explores important aspects of Sharia including its development, family law teachings, criminal law teachings, teachings on criminal procedure, and how Islamic law has evolved today.

"The Islamic financial system represents a financial structure substantially different from the dominant paradigm. It is supported by the network of institutional elements whose existence creates a strong barrier to the emergence of instability."

"The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) has a record of exemplary social and political activism stretching back to 1994. The organization is arguably the most visible and public representative of the American Muslim community.

Because of CAIR’s high profile and very public record of principled advocacy of civil liberties, interfaith relations and justice for all people, a...

"Mainstream Muslims and religious scholars say Islam is wrongly blamed for the violence and intolerance of a few. But some critics say Muslims have not done enough to oppose terrorism and violence."

"The speed of the war in Iraq and the prevailing belief that the Iraqi people are better off as a result have modestly improved the image of America. But in most countries, opinions of the U.S. are markedly lower than they were a year ago."

"This paper presents an overview of Sharia law, honor-based violence, female genital mutilation, and forced marriages as they affect women living in Islamic communities in Western countries."

"Although questions of implementation remain, the new Iraqi constitution makes Islam the law of the land. This need not mean trouble for Iraq's women, however. Sharia is open to a wide range of interpretations, some quite egalitarian."

"In considering these questions, this study maintains that the spirit of the Koran and other texts and teachings of Islam have provisions to protect women's basic rights, but the Maliki interpretation of Sharia, as applied in Northern Nigeria, often fails to protect these rights."

Video/Podcast/Media

"Melvyn Bragg and his guests discuss the origins and early development of Islamic law. The legal code of Islam is known as Sharia, an Arabic word meaning 'the way'. Its sources include the Islamic holy book the Qur'an, the words and actions of the Prophet Muhammad, and the opinions of legal scholars. In the 7th century, Sharia started to replace the tribal laws of pre-Islamic Arabia; over the...

"[L]ocal news coverage of ABC27 on the trial of Talaag E. The judge a self professed Muslim is irate and ignores the police officer and the witness. His finding, 'You have offended their culture, their being, (dressing up as Mohammed) I find it offensive...'"

Ayaan Hirsi Ali discusses the fundamental philosophical differences between Islam and Western civilization: emphasis of preparing for a life after death versus making the most out of life on earth.

"Emory Law Professor Abdullahi An-Naim discusses the postcolonial condition of Muslim states while presenting the 2007 Currie Lecture, The Future of Shari'a: Secularism from an Islamic Perspective, at Emory University School of Law."

Ezra Levant reads a statement to the Canadian Human Rights Commission hearing in regards to publishing the now-famous Muhammad drawings on his website.

This video describes how Islamic banks and financial systems work. The American loan crisis is then discussed and its relative lack of negative effect on the Muslim world is credited to their resistance to monetary interest.

"Emory Law Professor Abdullahi An-Naim discusses the elements of human understanding and interpretation in Sharia while presenting the 2007 Currie Lecture, The Future of Shari'a: Secularism from an Islamic Perspective, at Emory University School of Law."

"From the Iranium Raw Interview Files: Parts of Manda Zand Ervin's original interview. Under the Islamic Republic government regime, women are deprived of multiple basic human rights."

Islamist literature rejects central features of modernity common in the West, including capitalism.

In this clip, Newt Gingrich describes some of the details of Sharia law and their incompatibility with established Western law. Gingrich also warns that Sharia law is a direct attack on the principles that many liberal Americans hold dear.

"Sharia in Canada is a 2-part documentary series that delves into the debate over Islamic tribunals in Ontario. In December 2004, the Boyd Report recommended that Ontario authorize Islamic tribunals based on the sharia, a system of justice directly inspired by the Koran. In September 2005, however, Ontario premier Dalton McGuinty banned all religious arbitration, whether Muslim, Jewish or...

This video presents a compilation of images of Sharia law in practice--many of them very disturbing. The accompanying commentary in the form of a poem decries the treatment of women and homosexuals as ordained by Sharia law.

"Newly released after 15 years of military dictatorship, both Christians and Muslims in Nigeria are embracing their separate faiths with a renewed vigour. But amidst the prayers for paradise, violence has erupted twice this year, leaving more than a thousand people dead."

"In what some have described as police enforcement of Sharia law at the annual Dearborn Arab International Festival, last Friday night Dearborn Police Officers arrested four Christian missionaries... [and] confiscated their video cameras which were recording the events surrounding their arrests...Arrested on charges of Breach of the Peace are: Negeen Mayel, Dr. Nabeel Qureshi, Paul Rezkalla,...

"Western legal tradition rests on the idea that there is 'one law for all.' This idea has emerged from the Judeo-Christian tradition as mediated by the Enlightenment, particularly from the tradition’s teaching about the equal dignity and liberty of all. What challenges does Islamist extremism pose domestically in the United States to the core principles of Western society? Western European and...

"The Lou Church Memorial Lecture in Religion and Economics presented by Mustafa Akyol at the Austrian Scholars Conference on 12 March 2011, at Ludwig von Mises Institute in Auburn, Alabama. Includes an introduction by Joseph T. Salerno."

"Stranded in a remote Iranian village, Sahebjam is approached by Zahra, a woman with a harrowing tale to tell about her niece, Soraya, and the bloody circumstances of her death just one day before. Her shocking story exposes the dark power of mob rule, uncivil law, and the utter lack of human rights for women under Islamic law. Her last and only hope for some measure of justice lies in the...

"The last twenty years have seen a distinctively Islamic financial system become a major player on the world economic stage. The Islamic view that Islam must control all areas of life has led many Muslims to reject Western financial products and institutions, which they believe to be incompatible with shari`a law. They have also generated a wide range of alternative economic tools, initially...

Primary Document

The Islamic Penal Code of Iran, which has many references to Sharia Law and specifically uses Sharia judges to determine certain cases.

"This book is the first attempt at writing Islamic laws For Muslims who have settled in non-Muslim Countries. Muslims who were compelled to leave their countries, and the places where they grew up, and had to migrate to non-Muslim countries in which they now live under different laws and systems, dissimilar values and rules, and unfamiliar customs and habits. The modes of conduct and manners...

"JURIST Guest Columnist Bernard Freamon of Seton Hall University Law School says that Danish prosecutors should revisit their decision not to charge the Danish newspaper editors responsible for the initial printing of the satirical Muhammad cartoons before the worldwide violence over their publication and republication gets even more out of hand."

“Now, I have observed that there is a class of men who believe in their superiority to others because of their greater intelligence and insight. The have abandoned all the religious duties Islam imposes on its followers. The laugh at the positive commandments of religion which enjoin the performance of acts of devotion, and the abstinence from forbidden things. They defy the injunctions of the...

"This book contains an account of our present knowledge of the history and of the outlines of the system of Islamic law. It is intended for two groups of readers: students of history, social sciences, and comparative law on the one hand, and on the other, students of Arabic who might wish to embark upon this particularly important and attractive branch of Islamic studies. Islamic law provides...

The Archbishop of Canterbury discusses "the broader issues around the rights of religious groups within a secular state, with a few thoughts about what might be entailed in crafting a just and constructive relationship between Islamic law and the statutory law of the United Kingdom. "

This document explains the basics of Sharia and shows its roots. It also shows its importance in Islam and its basis within the Qur'an.

The Declaration of Human Rights set to govern the members of the Organization of Islamic Conference. It sets down that the nations will be ruled according to Sharia Law. It specifically mentions the differences in rights between men and women.

This page from the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten shows 12 cartoons depicting the Prophet Muhammad.

In this case, a Pakistani man living in the United States sought to divorce his wife. The husband declared that he had properly followed the Pakistani laws of divorce, while the wife sought monetary reimbursement in U.S. courts. This decision overturns a lower court decision and declares the following:

"In conclusion we hold that (1) the trial judge should have afforded recognition to...

"This Memorandum contains a brief on the Director of Public Prosecutions' considerations on whether there is basis for instituting criminal proceedings in the case of Jyllands-Posten's article 'The Face of Muhammed' published on 30 September 2005.

The matter is being considered as a result of complaints submitted against the decision by the Regional Public Prosecutor of Viborg on 6...

Prepared for the Ontario attorney general, Michael Bryant, this piece examines Canadian "arbitration of family law and inheritance matters and its impact on vulnerable people." This report resulted from a 2003 dispute over attempts at implementing Sharia law in Canada and includes a variety of input from Muslim adherents.

This resolution allowed the Oklahoma Secretary of State to place an amendment on the ballot. This amendment was described in the following way:

"This measure amends the State Constitution. It would change a section that deals with the courts of this state. It would make courts rely on federal and state laws when deciding cases. It would forbid courts from looking at international law or...

"1. The sound functioning of a financial system depends, inter alia, on the users of the system having confidence in the quality of the conduct of business by the participants offering financial products and services, and that there are adequate systems of control over the conduct of business. A framework of the principles and rules that govern effectively the conduct of business of Islamic...

"In recent years, the Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) has developed three Guiding Principles to help strengthen governance structures and processes in various segments of the Islamic financial services industry (IFSI) in line with its mandate to promote soundness and stability of the Islamic financial system. ... It was noted that in all three projects, concerns over the roles and...

"To require aliens to attest that they will not advocate installing a Sharia law system in the United States as a condition for admission, and for other purposes."

This case revolved around a Pakistani custody battle. Due to the fact that the mother had fled to the United States with her child, the American court system had to decide whether or not it would comply with the Pakistani ruling. According to a piece written by the...

This case centered around the marriage and divorce of two Afghan descendents. On pursuing divorce, the wife claimed that she had been promised a $20,000 divorce payment during their Islamic wedding ceremony. This court decision declared "that under neutral principles of contract law, Mr. Qayoum and Ms. Obaidi did not enter into a valid agreement for payment of $20,000 to Ms. Obaidi upon...

"The conclusion of my analysis, as presented below, is that there is no reason – in theory – to suspect that Islamic finance would be particularly immune or particularly vulnerable to abuse by money launderers or terrorist financiers. In this regard, it is important to recognize that Islamic finance utilizes relatively sophisticated financial methods – originally...

"These are the Islamic Laws [Sharia] according to the Fatawa of Ayatullah al Uzama Syed Ali al-Husaini Seestani. This is the English Version of Taudhihul Masae'l, translated by the World Federation of KSI Muslim Communities, P.O. Box 60, Stanmore, U.K. HA7 4LQ. See also a...

The Islamic Laws according to Ayatullah Khoei. A long list of laws covering all topics from water's purification to the definition of infidel.

"If peace, harmony and equality are to prevail we should start by learning to better communicate with each other based on mutual respect, understanding and empathy of each other. Using such terms as 'Islamic fascists', 'Muslim terrorists' and 'Islamist fundamentalist extremists' do not help in fighting the so called 'war on terrorism'.

On the contrary, such offensive, irresponsible and...

"There are five parties to these two consolidated appeals: a husband and wife, the wife's parents, and the husband's brother.

Rola Qaddura and Jamal Qaddura were married on September 3, 1993. Previously, on August 28, 1993, they had signed an 'Islamic Society of Arlington Islamic Marriage Certificate' which reflects that the ... 'dowry for the bride' was: 'One-half of the value of the...

"After having briefly elucidated the meaning of Jihad and the significance of the clause ‘in the way of God’, I wish to explain in brief terms the Revolutionary Creed which Islam upholds so that it may be easily understood why Jihād is needed and what is the objective of Jihad."

"Mankind today is on the brink of a precipice, not because of the danger of complete annihilation which is hanging over its head-this being just a symptom and not the real disease -but because humanity is devoid of those vital values which are necessary not only for its healthy development but also for its real progress. Even the Western world realises that...

In the recent case of Murray v. Geithner, the judge held the lawsuit sufficiently alleged a federal constitutional challenge to the use of taxpayer money to fund AIG’s Islamic religious activities and that times of crisis do not justify departure from the constitution.

"Islamic law, known as the shari 'ah, is the framework of ultimate reality and the ethical guidance that Muslim scholars have derived from the direct Revelation of Allah to man. Although Allah reveals the pattern of ultimate truth indirectly through the workings of the physical universe and in the observable nature of man, the ultimate source of knowledge about both physical and metaphysical...

President Obama seeks to mend the conflict between Islam and the West. He wishes to take certain steps to establish common ground between the two and to create a better understanding and relationship for the future. Additionally, he does not deny that tension exists especially in the areas of violent extremism, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the rights and...

"This case presents the novel issue of whether a civil court can specifically enforce the terms of an Islamic Mahr Agreement, and arises in this action brought by plaintiff for a divorce based upon grounds of extreme cruelty. Defendant has filed an answer and a countercomplaint for divorce also on grounds of extreme cruelty."

This case involved the repeated assaults on a Muslim woman by her husband. This particular ruling overturned the ruling of a lower court which "fail[ed] to issue a final restraining order." Justice Payne concluded that "[t]he trial court abused its discretion by finding that defendant lacked the requisite intent to commit sexual assault and criminal sexual contact based upon his religion."

The Sunnah for Muslims is thought to be the sayings and living habits of Muhammad, who they believe is their religion's greatest and last prophet. Hadith are narrations originating from the words and deeds of Muhammad. Thus, both Sunnah and Hadith are believed to be important for interpreting the Qur'an and in the understanding of Islamic law. This site provides links to various translations of the Hadith and the Sunnah used by Muslims.

The Meaning of the Qur'an (Arabic: Tafhim al-Qur'an) is a book divided into six volumes written by the Islamic scholar Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi (1903-1979). This work is one of the most prominent exegesis of the Qur'an (Arabic: tafsir), based on the Sunni hadith literature and includes an introduction for each Surah in the Quran, explaining the name, period of revelation and a large section on its historical background.

Tarikonda v. Pinjari revolved around the issue of a "triple talaq" divorce commonly accepted in Islamic law. This U.S. court decision chose not to recognize the "triple talaq" divorce for a number of reasons, one of which being the fact that it violated "the Equal Protection Clauses of the United States and Michigan Constitutions."

This case involved a custody battle and the controversy over whether or not the outcome should be determined in a Sharia court. Some of the judge's sentiments to this case are expressed as follows:

"We remand the case to the Probate Court (for further consideration, if possible, by the same probate judge, after such additional evidentiary inquiry as she shall determine to be appropriate...

"This treatise on the Alchemy of Happiness, or Kimiai Saadet, seems well adapted to extend our knowledge of the writings of Ghazzali and of the opinions current then and now in the Oriental world. Although it throws no light on any questions of geography, philology or political history, objects most frequently in view in translations from the Oriental languages, yet a book which exhibits with...

"'Maritime transactions', as herein defined, means charter parties, bills of lading of water carriers, agreements relating to wharfage, supplies furnished vessels or repairs to vessels, collisions, or any other matters in foreign commerce which, if the subject of controversy, would be embraced within admiralty jurisdiction; 'commerce', as herein defined, means commerce among the several States...

"During January - March, 1948, Sayyid Abul A'la Mawdudi (1903 - 1979) gave a series of five talks, in Urdu, on Radio Pakistan, in which he dealt with the broad and basic principles of moral, political, economic, social and spiritual teachings of Islam. They were immediately published in books and have also been translated into several different languages, the first English translation...

"The Saudi Arabian legal system in 1992 was based on the sharia, or Islamic law. The sharia was applied throughout the kingdom in strict accordance with the interpretation of the Hanbali school of Sunni Islam. Because pious Muslims believed that the sharia was sacred law, they accepted as judges, or qadis, only men who had spent a number of years studying the accepted sources of the sharia:...

"THE WORK which I am now placing before the public is based on a lifetime of study and of many years spent in Arabia. It is an attempt - perhaps the first attempt - at a really idiomatic, explanatory rendition of the Qur'anic message into a European language."

"In this book, now, we are going to explain such various aspects of civilization that affect human beings in their social organization, as royal authority, gainful occupation, sciences, and crafts, (all) in the light of various arguments that will show the true nature of the varied knowledge of the elite and the common people, repel misgivings, and remove doubts. We say that man is...

"This book is concerned with the origins of Muhammadan jurisprudence. I shall, of course, often have occasion to refer to examples taken from Muhammadan law, which is the material of Muhammadan jurisprudence. But the history of positive law in Islam as such, and the relationship between the ideals of legal doctrine and the practical administration of justice fall outside the scope of the...

"Praise be to God for all His praiseworthy acts, and blessings on Mohammad, His slave, the Pure, the Chosen One and His Apostle. The purpose of the following treatise is to inquire through sacred Law whether the learning of philosophy and other sciences appertaining thereto is permitted, or called dangerous, or commended by the Law, and if commended, is it only approved or made obligatory....

This page offers a number of translations of each verse of the Koran.

"This study analyzes the constitutional provisions currently in place concerning the relationship between religion and the state, freedom of religion or belief, and related human rights in predominantly Muslim countries. The Muslim world stretches from Europe to Africa, through the Middle East and into Asia. Indeed, its geographical diversity mirrors a central...

"It is not the function of Islam to compromise with the concepts of Jahiliyya which are current in the world or to co-exist in the same land together with a jahili system. This was not the case when it first appeared in the world, nor will it be today or in the future. Jahiliyyah, to whatever period it belongs, is Jahiliyyah; that is, deviation from the worship of One Allah and the way of life...

In Rajab 1366 (May June 1947), the Imaam Al-Shaheed Hasan Al-Banna, General Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood, sent this letter to Faruq 1st, King of Egypt and the Sudan, Mustafa Al-Nahaas Pasha, his then Prime Minister, and to the kings, princes, and rulers of the various countries of the Islamic world, as well as to a great number of civic and religious leaders in those countries. Once again we are publishing and distributing it. Many of the view points and directives it contains still represent the dearest hope of every Arab and every Muslim.

"The Uniform Arbitration Act (UAA), promulgated in 1955, has been one of the most successful Acts of the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. Forty-nine jurisdictions have arbitration statutes; 35 of these have adopted the UAA and 14 have adopted substantially similar legislation. A primary purpose of the 1955 Act was to insure the enforceability of agreements to...

"When — in early September 2005 — I got a brief request from my editor at the Danish daily Jyllands-Posten to draw my impression of the prophet Muhammad, I had little idea of what I was getting myself into. To me it was just another day at the office. So I tried to do the best job I could, and I drew up a picture of the prophet with a bomb in his turban. I further inserted the quotation: '...

"Respondent, who is not an Indian, operates a general store in Arizona on the Navajo Indian Reservation under a license required by federal statute. ... He brought this ... action in the Superior Court of Arizona against petitioners, a Navajo Indian and his wife who live on the Reservation, to collect for goods sold them there on credit. Over petitioners' motion to dismiss on the ground that...

Books

Link

Engage

Click thumbnails below to view links

Online

Tired of business getting a bum rap? We are, too. Here's your chance to share on Facebook the good news that business is good, beautiful, and makes life better.
We all know Facebook is awesome for keeping up with friends, sharing about your life, and even distributing ideas. One great new way to get people thinking is to take advantage of the new banner profile with the help of Intellectual Takeout. Here's what one of our banners looks like loaded up on a Facebook profile: If you haven't changed your banner profile, than Facebook is likely ...
Become a fan of Intellectual Takeout on Facebook!
To: The President and the Congress of the United States of America Whereas: Congress, the Department of the Treasury, and the Executive Branch have increased the United States’ national debt to over $14 trillion by 2011. Whereas: The national debt doubled in less than ten years and is expected to double again in the next ten years. Whereas: Each American’s share of the national debt is $45,684,...
At Intellectual Takeout, we think it's about time freedom went viral. Before our generation is the opportunity to embrace freedom, to unleash each individual's potential, and to have a prosperous future. And yet it seems that almost everyone running our cities, states, and federal government is intent on destroying freedom and burying us in debt to pay for it. If you, like us, believe that...
Share Intellectual Takeout with friends, family, and colleagues on Facebook and Twitter!
Education history in America is important to know. ITO traces how education has changed from the colonial period to present day America.
Okay, so your friends and family keep telling you to jump on the social media bandwagon, but you have no idea what the fuzz is about. Here’s the deal: The Internet gives liberty-loving folk like us an opportunity we have never had before: to make the case for individual liberty, limited government and free market economics instantly and globally. But with the vast amounts of information...

Offline

In a highly regulated society such as ours, it's very easy to get yourself in trouble with the law. Learn more about how to protect yourself with the 5th Amendment and how to interact with the police.
Curiously, not a few individuals are realizing that their education (K-12 and even college) neglected to provide them with as much understanding of the world as they would like. At Intellectual Takeout, we believe that however you feel about your education, there is still much to be learned. To that end, we'd like to refer you to one book and a collection of "study guides" that serve as...
Know your rights with Flex Your Rights guide to the "10 Rules for Dealing with Police."
Looking for an internship? If so, Intellectual Takeout has an opportunity for you. We have plenty of work to do as well as ideas to spread, and we need your help to get it done. If you're interested in an internship with Intellectual Takeout, you likely share our passion and you're excited about the possibility of working for a great cause. That said, you might have a few questions about what "...
Sure, the idea of homeschooling is likely overwhelming. Indeed, homeschooling is a big commitment and a lot of work. That said, there's a reason why more and more parents are turning to homeschooling as the best option for their child(ren)'s education(s). Perhaps you are starting to realize that the public school system has changed a lot since you last attended it. Maybe you can't afford private...
Let's face it, most of us love to watch TV and movies. A wonderful way to spread ideas is to embrace our love of the cinema by hosting a movie night with friends and family.  There are numerous documentaries that do a fantastic job of sharing the ideas of liberty. You can pull a small group of friends together at your house or even consider asking a local restaurant or tavern to let you...
Are you concerned your child isn't getting the education necessary to compete in the global economy or even, perhaps, to carry on the lessons and learning of Western Civilization? If so, you have a number of choices. You could, of course, consider changing schools to a charter school, private school, or even homeschooling. If that's overwhelming for you right now, you can always supplement your...
How often do you hear conservatives being called a bunch of knuckle-dragging Neanderthals? Here's the reality: Conservatism, classical liberalism, and libertarianism have a rich, intellectual heritage reaching back many millennia. Our ideas are not just some historical relics from bygone eras; they are the very foundation of Western Civilization in general, amd the United States in particular....
Sadly (or happily for some), life goes on after college. So does the fight for freedom. Building friendships, networking, and growing the movement is critical after college. If our ideas are to be preserved and promoted, you need to stay involved. Plus, in a time when the individual seems to be ever more isolated and adrift, these groups can help plug you into social networks you can use....
Okay, so we don't expect you to drive a wooden stake into your flat screen. Plus, we're total hypocrites since we watch some TV. But here's the point: People waste a ton of time watching TV. If you're cool with government taking over your future, than keep watching Dancing with the Stars. If you consider yourself to be a free man or woman and want to live in a free society, then watch what you...
A great way to make a difference on your campus by spreading the ideas of individual rights, limited government, and free markets is to tutor. Plus, you can occasionally make a little bit of money. Depending on the subject matter, you will be discussing a variety of ideas, key thinkers, and theories. As anyone who has tutored knows, there are almost always opportunities to expand upon a topic....
The Association of American Educators (AAE) advances the teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection, as well as promoting excellence in education so that our members receive the respect, recognition and reward they deserve.

On Campus

We've built Intellectual Takeout to provide you with quick, easy access to information. In time, we hope to become your one-stop-shop for the ideas of freedom. If your professor allows you to bring your laptop to class (if not, you can use an iPhone), we recommend keeping a tab open to Intellectual Takeout. As we continue to generate new content on the site, you will be able to fact check the...
When it comes to campus life injustices, student fees rank high on any list. On most campuses across the country a mandatory student fee is assessed to each student at the beginning of the year. A portion of this fee, which may be several hundred dollars, will go toward funding various political, religious, and interest groups.  A college requiring you to support groups espousing ideas which...
If you're not happy with the direction of the country and you want to take back your future, at some point you will have to do something. It's not enough to just know that we're going in the wrong direction. You actually have to step out and get involved. Most college campuses have conservative and libertarian student groups. Find one of them to join. Below is a list of some of the larger non-...
Now that you're at college and the initial excitement has worn off, maybe you're thinking that the course selection is a bit biased and you'd like some options. So how do you (the consumer) get the college (the business) to change up its offerings? It certainly won't be easy. Nevertheless it's something that should be done--particularly since you're footing the bill. A good, education in a free...
Whatever activism you choose to do on campus, you need to get your story out. A popular tactic used by the Left is to isolate and intimidate freedom-loving students. You're not alone and there are a lot of people in your city, state, and country that can probably support your efforts. They just need to know what is happening. Whenever you can, record in-class bias, discrimination against...
The reality is that most students (and people for that matter) won't speak out. It's called human nature and it was recognized in the Declaration of Independence: "...all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed." While you might feel alone when debating a teacher,...
In the land of the free and the home of the brave, speech codes are a particularly odious example of politically correct repression on many a college campus. In some ways, college campuses are the least free places for thinking and speech in America. Your best friend for fighting your school's repressive speech codes is the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE). Here's a short clip...
Running for office isn't easy, even in college. Not everyone is cut out for it, either. For those of you who are, this completely non-partisan section is for you. If you are inclined to pursue student government, we're not going to spend time on telling you how to get elected. A good place to go for ideas and training is CampusReform.org. Rather, we want to help you in office, as a believer in...

Related Content