America's Adversaries

Throughout the Cold War, America’s foreign policy efforts were aimed definitively at the USSR. Washington filtered almost all military strategies through the main lens of containing Communism and the nuclear threat. Today, over 20 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall, the situation is more varied. Countries like Iran, North Korea, China, Russia, and Venezuela each present unique and complex foreign policy challenges. As a general pattern, America’s most serious adversaries are home to diminished levels of democracy, leaders with disputed legitimacy, obstructed free trade, the toleration or sponsorship of terrorism, and some association with nuclear weapons.

Since the 1979 Islamic Revolution and overthrow of the American-supportive Shah, Iran has conducted itself as a Shi’a theocracy, hostile to America and other secular Western countries. Iran particularly arouses international alarm over its ongoing pursuit of nuclear weapons. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been monitoring Iran’s nuclear activities since September of 2002. Although Iran continually insists that its nuclear program exists for peaceful purposes, the country’s refusal to comply with IAEA investigations is increasingly perceived as a major threat to the United States and its allies. In an attempt to thwart this perceived nuclear threat, the United States has implemented a variety of harsh economic sanctions against Iran, the most recent occurring when President Obama signed the National Defense Authorization Act for 2012. Iran’s close proximity and potential influence on American initiatives in Iraq and Afghanistan has provided another reason for the U.S. to view Iran with a wary eye.

Like Iran, North Korea prompts concern from the U.S. and the IAEA regarding its nuclear tests. U.S. relations with North Korea have been strained since the Korean War. The U.S. views North Korea as a highly-centralized, isolated communist state with a history of heinous human rights violations. In 2003, the U.S., South Korea, China, Japan, and Russia attempted "Six-Party" talks with North Korea, with the goal of reaching a diplomatic solution to the nuclear dispute. In 2008, North Korea made headway in its disarmament promises, yet regressed in 2009 when it once again engaged in nuclear tests. After the death of longtime North Korean dictator Kim Jong Il in late 2011, his son Kim Jong Eun inherited the leadership of Pyongyang. As much is unknown about Kim Jong Eun’s ideology and leadership style, it remains to be seen whether or not he will increase or diminish the adversarial state between the U.S. and North Korea.

U.S. relations with China are fraught with contradictions. Although the United States economic status is closely intertwined with China, the latter’s communist ideology has long been an underlying bone of contention between the two nations. Indeed, China’s documented human rights violations, censorship, repression of dissent, currency manipulation, disputes over sovereign territories in the South China Sea, and other factors have long been troublesome to the U.S. Additionally, there is a long history of friction between the U.S. and China over the standing of Taiwan, which established an independent government from the Chinese mainland in 1949 after the Chinese Civil War. Since the Taiwan Relations Act was signed in 1979, the United States has a public commitment to provide Taiwan with defensive weapons and to guard it against hostile acts. 

The fall of Communism in the early 1990s gave the U.S.-Russia relationship a fresh start, but tensions have once again begun to escalate between the two nations, especially under the leadership of Vladimir Putin, who has often been accused of reinstating autocracy. Putin, defying the 2011 election results and clinging to power, has emboldened Russian nationalist sentiments, which has led to numerous foreign policy controversies: weapons sales to other American adversaries such as Iran; opposition to a U.S. missile shield in Eastern Europe; and verbal disagreement over UN and U.S. sanctions of Iran. Although the new version of the nuclear arms reduction treaty known as START (negotiated in 2009) has given the Obama administration hope that the U.S.-Russia relationship would be "reset," many others fear that Russian interests might be favored to the detriment of the U.S. Those concerns heightened when reports surfaced in February 2012 that the Obama administration was considering an 80% cut in the U.S. arsenal of deployed nuclear weapons. Speculations that the U.S. would compromise too much with Russia continued when a month later, in March 2012, President Obama was caught off-mic remarking to President Medvedev: "On all these issues, but particularly missile defense, this, this can be solved but it's important for [Putin] to give me space. ...This is my last election. After my election I have more flexibility." 

Finally, although Venezuela is geographically distant from both Iran and North Korea, Venezuela’s leader, Hugo Chavez, has made friendly overtures to both countries. Chavez’s close relationship with Iran’s president Ahmadinejad, coupled with reports that select locations in Venezuela might be sheltering nuclear weapons development, have raised U.S. suspicion in recent years. Chavez, an outspoken socialist and American antagonist, promotes his "Bolivarian Revolution" as an exemplary model for other nations. The Venezuelan leader has also called upon Latin America and developing countries to form greater unity, in opposition to what he considers U.S. hegemony and imperialism. In 2008, Chavez demanded the expulsion of the U.S. Ambassador from Venezuela, and the U.S. responded by ordering the exit of the Venezuelan Ambassador in Washington. With rumors of Chavez’s malignant cancer increasing in late 2011, the direction of the U.S.-Venezuelan relationship status appears to be hanging in the balance as the potential for an upcoming power-vacuum looms.

America's adversaries are diverse, which raises the more fundamental question of what the proper basis of an effective foreign policy should be. Very broadly speaking, those arguing for an active or even interventionist foreign policy emphasize focusing on ensuring strong national defense and effective homeland security, active promotion of democracy around the globe, and even attempts at "nation building." On the other side, those seeking a less interventionist approach are strongly concerned about the potential threat that war and foreign alliances could pose to the liberty of the American people. Their position essentially reflects the counsel given by the nation's first President, George Washington, upon his leaving office in 1796:

"The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible... It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it... Taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies." 

This topic provides information on what are currently considered to be America's main adversaries, and the history and other factors behind the contentions America has with these nations.

EMP Study Guide

Iran Study Guide

North Korea Study Guide

China Study Guide

Russia Study Guide

Show More

More About This Topic...

Click thumbnails below to view links

Quote Page

Commentary or Blog Post

"Iran’s economic freedom score is 42.1, making its economy the 171st freest in the 2011 Index. Its score has decreased by 1.3 points from last year, driven by lower scores in freedom from corruption, trade freedom, and labor freedom. Iran is ranked 16th out of 17 countries in the Middle East/North Africa region, and its overall score is well below the world and regional averages.

Heavy...

"Of all the developments in Latin America over the past decade the consolidation of power in Venezuela by Hugo Chavez who was first elected in 1998 and the advancement of the 'Bolivarian Revolution' is clearly among the most significant. A hemisphere that could rally around a common agenda at regional Summits in Miami, Santiago, and Quebec City from 1994-2001 proved itself to be hopelessly and...

"The US has renewed full diplomatic ties with Libya, ending more than two decades of fraught relations between the two countries. Here is a brief history of US dealings with Colonel Muammar Gaddafi's Libya."

"Britain and fellow United Nations Security Council countries are likely to be asked to help bankroll an African force of 3,200 soldiers to fight Islamists in Mali, diplomats have said."

"Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said Tuesday that his country has 'been able to control' the U.S. drone that Iran claims it recently brought down, Venezuelan state TV reported.

'There are people here who have been able to control this spy plane,' Ahmadinejad told VTV. 'Those who have been in control of this spy plane surely will analyze the plane's system. Furthermore, the...

"Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) is a Salafi-jihadist militant group and U.S.-designated Foreign Terrorist Organization operating in North Africa's Sahara and Sahel. The group can trace its provenance back to Algeria's civil war, and has since become an al-Qaeda affiliate with broader regional and international ambitions. While many experts suggest AQIM is the primary transnational...

"Russia and China obstructed the Obama administration’s Syria policy by vetoing an anti-Assad Security Council resolution backed by the Arab League, Britain, France, and the United States. As harmful as this defeat was in its immediate consequences, it may bode even worse for efforts to prevent Iran from getting nuclear weapons. Obama still seems not to grasp what motivates Russia and China,...

"Say what you will about the death penalty, this is a pretty embarrassing list to be on.

Amnesty's 2010 Death Penalty Report named China as the top executor with thousands of executions. Iran came in second with 252 executions, followed by North Korea at 60, Yemen at 52, USA at 46, Saudi Arabia at 27, Libya at 18 and Syria at 17."

"The eye of Hurricane Sandy hasn't hit land yet but state-run news outlets in countries at odds with the U.S. are brimming with apocalyptic coverage of the swirling weather system."

"Given the UN Security Council resolution authorizing the use of all appropriate measures against Muammar Qaddafi's forces, it is now probable that the United States and its NATO allies (possibly with token commitments from some members of the Arab League) will initiate a military intervention in Libya at some point. The hasty cease-fire that the Qaddafi government announced following passage...

"Islamic countries distrust the United States under the leadership of President Obama about as much as they did under President George W. Bush. What's going on?"

"The Associated Press, citing two unnamed sources, reports that Pentagon has drafted several options for cutting U.S. nuclear weapons. The plans has not yet been presented to President Obama."

"This academic discussion has direct relevance to the ongoing policy debate over Iran, and whether Israel, the United States, or some combination of states should use preemptive military force against the regime’s suspected nuclear weapons program. We cannot ask the Iranian government directly what they would do with a bomb, because it continues to maintain that its nuclear program is entirely...

"U.S. officials are increasingly concerned that Syrian strongman Bashar al-Assad is receiving new military assistance from Belarus, a tiny nation which appears willing to flout the international effort to isolate the dictator and force him from power."

"Hackers broke the website of Italian cyberpolice and made ​​public stolen documents. One of them is a receipt for payment for the export of Belorussian military equipment to Syria. 'Beltechexport' delivered to Syria night vision devices and laser scopes for a total of 1.5 million euros."

"It's a problem for U.S. retailers when Communist China makes fake designer handbags and illegal copies of our music CDs, but it's a much bigger problem when the fakes are chips installed in our military weapons. The American people are starting to discover that counterfeit computer components bought from the Chinese are used in our warplanes, ships and communication networks."

"The nations with the largest numbers of active military personnel generally fall into one of two categories — either the populous and wealthy or the war-torn. China, the United States, and India top the list of the world’s largest militaries in absolute numbers, but Pakistan, Iran, and Vietnam all finish out the top 10. But when the figures are adjusted for the size of the nation’s civilian...

"China on Tuesday gave its firmest government confirmation yet of plans to build two new nuclear reactors for Pakistan, but a Foreign Ministry spokeswoman said she did not know about talks over a bigger reactor deal."

"A senior cyber-security official in China said recently that the country wants to work with other nations to improve cyber security. Yet along with this pledge came another example of the back and forth between nation-states that has become a common feature of many public discussions about security. This time however, it was China pointing fingers at the United States."

"The Chinese government has announced retaliatory measures over a planned sale of advanced US weaponry to Taiwan. China's defence ministry said it would suspend military exchanges with the US, impose sanctions on companies selling arms to Taiwan and review wider co-operation on international issues. The confrontation over the $6.3bn (£4bn) arms sale to Taiwan – a self-governing island that...

"There's been an interesting new development in China's use of cyber space as an element in its intelligence and security operations. The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is reportedly funding a vast complex of part-time cyber-devotees to supplement and compliment the official structure of cyber interception and invasion.

Equally as interesting is the willingness of the Chinese...

"Researchers in Toronto have released a document that describes what may be the first real evidence of a government-operated cyber-espionage network in action. In a ten-month investigation, the team documented the operation of what they dubbed GhostNet, and its various worldwide infection."

"A vast Chinese cyber-espionage network, codenamed GhostNet, has penetrated 103 countries and infects at least a dozen new computers every week, according to researchers."

"A Chinese-born engineer was convicted Thursday of stealing trade secrets critical to the U.S. space program in the nation's first economic espionage trial.

A federal judge found former Boeing Co. engineer Dongfan 'Greg' Chung guilty of six counts of economic espionage and other charges for taking 300,000 pages of sensitive documents that included information about the U.S. space...

Currently, there are worries among Americans, especially U.S. politicians that Chinese currency manipulation is a protectionist violation of WTO rulings.

"Here's an updated version of our Cyber Attacks graphic showing a world map and chart illustrating targeted cyber attacks on more than 70 companies, government bodies and organizations the last five years as compiled by software maker McAfee."

"A day after the Pentagon acknowledged that an unmanned American reconnaissance drone went missing while on an operation in western Afghanistan late last week, Defense officials still smarting from the incident have come forward to dismiss Iranian claims that the drone was brought down by hostile activity. And American cyber experts similarly expressed skepticism over Iranian contentions that...

"Ever since the discovery of the Stuxnet cyber attack on Iran's nuclear enrichment program and the assignation of Iran's chief Stuxnet Investigator, Iran has been hell-bent on developing offensive and defensive cyber capabilities.

Over this past year or so numerous comments about the cyber domain that have come out of Tehran and recently the leader of Iran's Cyber Defense Organization...

"When will China emerge as a military threat to the U.S.? In most respects the answer is: not anytime soon—China doesn’t even contemplate a time it might challenge America directly. But one significant threat already exists: cyberwar. Attacks—not just from China but from Russia and elsewhere—on America’s electronic networks cost millions of dollars and could in the extreme cause the collapse...

"The first sign of trouble was a mysterious signal emanating from deep within the U.S. military’s classified computer network. Like a human spy, a piece of covert software in the supposedly secure system was 'beaconing' — trying to send coded messages back to its creator."

This article analyzes the current situation in Russia, and advises respect and sensitivity in Obama's scheduled trip to Moscow.

"Cyberspies have penetrated the U.S. electrical grid and left behind software programs that could be used to disrupt the system, according to current and former national-security officials.

The spies came from China, Russia and other countries, these officials said, and were believed to be on a mission to navigate the U.S. electrical system and its controls. The intruders haven't sought...

"Belarus is the latest country that Western powers suspect of helping Iran skirt U.N. sanctions aimed at preventing it from expanding its ballistic missile and nuclear programs, Western diplomats told Reuters."

"For at least five years, a high-level hacking campaign—dubbed Operation Shady rat—has infiltrated the computer systems of national governments, global corporations, nonprofits, and other organizations, with more than 70 victims in 14 countries. Lifted from these highly secure servers, among other sensitive property: countless government secrets, e-mail archives, legal contracts, and design...

"A widespread and unusually resilient computer attack that began July 4 knocked out the Web sites of several government agencies, including some that are responsible for fighting cyber crime, The Associated Press has learned.

The Treasury Department, Secret Service, Federal Trade Commission and Transportation Department Web sites were all down at varying points over the holiday weekend...

"Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) are foreign organizations that are designated by the Secretary of State in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended."

"France will move surveillance drones to West Africa and is holding secretive talks with US officials in Paris as it seeks to steer international military action to help Mali's government win back the north from al-Qaeda-linked rebels."

"America’s failure is not that its messages are wrong. Our mission to make the world safe for freedom and democracy is a noble goal. Our challenge is to live up to that commitment everywhere in the world, even when it comes as a danger to our perceived national interest. Representative Paul would disagree. He argues that such a mission is unsustainable and that eventually our entanglements...

"Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, the Arab world's longest-serving ruler, was killed on Thursday in an attack by forces loyal to Libya’s National Transitional Council (NTC) on his hometown of Sirte, the last major bastion of his crumbling regime, NTC officials have announced. People cheered in the streets of the capital of Tripoli and waved the country’s new flag upon hearing of the leader’s death."...

"Cyber spies have once again hacked into a major US system – the target this time being the $300 billion joint strike fighter programme of the US forces and the British Royal Navy, which is aimed at homogenising the air defence needs of the two armed forces. The spy ring, widely dubbed GhostNet, is reported to be based in China, though the Chinese government has denied any involvement."

"The following graphic lists the ten most/least corrupt countries based on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index for 2011. The Corruption Perception Index assigns countries and territories with scores between 0 (highly corrupt) and 10 (very clean). New Zealand tops the list as the least corrupt country, while North Korea and Somalia are all the way at the bottom."

"Google moved quickly to announce that it would stop censoring its Chinese ­service after realising dissidents were at risk from attempts to use the company's technology for political ­surveillance, according to a source with direct ­knowledge of the internet giant's most senior management.

As the US intervened in Google's challenge to Beijing, the source told the Guardian the company's...

"Hackers seeking source code from Google, Adobe and dozens of other high-profile companies used unprecedented tactics that combined encryption, stealth programming and an unknown hole in Internet Explorer, according to new details released by the anti-virus firm McAfee."

"This was not the first botnet strike ever, nor was it the largest. But never before had an entire country been targeted on almost every digital front all at once, and never before had a government itself fought back. 'The attacks were aimed at the essential electronic infrastructure of the Republic of Estonia,' Aaviksoo tells me later. 'All major commercial banks, telcos, media outlets, and...

"When Barack Obama entered the White House in January 2009 on the heels of George W. Bush, one of his objectives was to demonstrate that engaging in a dialogue with America’s adversaries could be more effective than confrontation in addressing such prickly foreign policy concerns as nuclear proliferation and authoritarian regimes.

Some three years later, the media salvos President Obama...

The public has been led to believe, however, that the war was, for all practical purposes, over. The truth is, the fighting has never stopped.

"Upon seizing power nearly 42 years ago, Gaddafi nationalized Libya's foreign-controlled oil industry and ordered the closure of the Wheelus Air Base, one of the largest US facilities in the world. Despite this antagonism, Gaddafi's anti-Communism allowed for some initial, cautious optimism from the United States about the new regime, but diplomatic relations were downgraded in 1973 and were...

"A group of researchers has discovered serious security holes in six top industrial control systems used in critical infrastructure and manufacturing facilities and, thanks to exploit modules they released on Thursday, have also made it easy for hackers to attack the systems before they’re patched or taken offline.

The vulnerabilities were found in widely used programmable logic...

"In our hemisphere, anti-American populists have been elected in Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador, and are busy centralizing power and reversing the trend of the 1990s toward openness and economic integration. Around the world, authoritarian regimes are learning repression from one another. What political scientist Samuel Huntington labeled the 'third wave' of democratization began in the 1970s...

"U.S. negotiators are heading into a second day of what have been dubbed 'serious and substantial' talks with North Korean officials. Yet amidst all the discussion of how the U.S. will attempt to work with Kim Jong Un, there has been little (open) speculation as to whether Dear Leader Junior might crank up production of $100 and $50 bills. No, not North Korean 100- or 50-won banknotes, worth...

Washington simultaneously speaks of China as a strategic partner and an enemy. Etzioni imagines how this discourse must appear to the Chinese.

"The impending cyber threat requires the immediate attention of Congress, according to a top intelligence official who singled out China, Russia and a failure of policy keeping up with the speed of technology as top threats to the nation’s critical networks."

"When people within the effected country or region -- or policymakers and policy analysts in the West --request military intervention, they should be aware of who they are saying "no" to and what accounts for that distinction."

"Tehran has embarked on an ambitious plan to boost its offensive and defensive cyber-warfare capabilities and is investing $1 billion in developing new technology and hiring new computer experts.

Iran has been the victim of a number of cyber attacks in recent years, some attributed to Israel. The most famous attack was by a virus called Stuxnet which is believed, at its prime, to have...

"Iran is gearing up for a cyberwar campaign after being hit with coordinated, sophisticated cyberattacks last year that reportedly crippled its Natanz nuclear enrichment facility.

The Islamic Republic plans 'to fight our enemies with abundant power in cyberspace and Internet warfare,' according to Brigadier Gen. Gholamreza Jalali, who leads the country’s Passive Defense Organization...

"Since Mahmoud Ahmadinejad first became Iran's President in August 2005, the economy has gone from 'bad' to 'worse.' A misery index provides a clear picture of the economic conditions experienced by the majority of Iranians. The index is the sum of the inflation, interest and unemployment rates, minus the annual percentage change in per capita GDP."

"Russia’s comfortable middle class turned to the streets for the first time this month to fight Prime Minister Vladimir Putin’s rule over their country. But long-aggrieved nationalists have helped give the protests their crackling energy, in an alliance of forces that usually are disdainful of each other, if not openly hostile.

Combined, liberals and nationalists are trying to appeal to...

"No matter the hypocritical double standard. Now that revolutions are sweeping the Middle East and everyone is a convert to George W. Bush’s freedom agenda, it’s not just Iraq that has slid into the memory hole. Also forgotten is the once proudly proclaimed 'realism' of Years One and Two of President Obama’s foreign policy — the 'smart power' antidote to Bush’s alleged misty-eyed idealism."

"An electronic spy network, based mainly in China, has infiltrated computers from government offices around the world, Canadian researchers say.

They said the network had infiltrated 1,295 computers in 103 countries."

"Today on Good Morning America, Sen. John McCain (R-AZ) refused to call the situation in Afghanistan 'precarious and urgent,' but admitted that 'We have a lot of work to do.' He warned of a 'very hard struggle, particularly given the situation on the Iraq-Pakistan border.'"

"Which is the bigger threat to the U.S. and its vital interests--Islamic terrorism or China's economic and military expansion?

History teaches that extremist phases in Islam's development come and go and that the present surge of violence will pass. We need to combine vigilance with patience. To be vigilant is necessary, anyway. It's not a bad thing that the threat of suicide bombers...

"Only the Chinese government knows how many nuclear weapons China has. As in most other nuclear weapon states, the number is a closely held secret. Even so, it is possible to make best estimates of the approximate size that benefit the public debate.

A recent example of how not to make an estimate is the study recently published by the Asia Arms Control Project at Georgetown University...

North Korea today risked further international isolation after it claimed to have successfully tested a nuclear weapon as powerful as the atomic bomb that destroyed Hiroshima.

"In North Korea's mountainous Hyungsan region, a military academy specializing in electronic warfare has been churning out 100 cybersoldiers every year for nearly two decades."

"A recent attack paralyzing the computer system of Nonghyup Bank has raised fears about North Korea’s cyber terrorism capabilities, especially following the past North Korean DDoS attacks on July 7, 2009, and March 4, 2011.

Although the two previous DDoS attacks only resulted in confusion for users of major governmental websites, the Nonghyup attack has shocked analysts due to the real...

"The danger is not the bomb per se, but rather who has it. Most of us do not worry about a democratic Britain, France, India, or Israel possessing nuclear weapons. The fright instead is over a Communist authoritarian China, an unhinged North Korea, an Islamist Pakistan, or an unstable Russia having nuclear weapons. Transparent democracies, in other words, are mostly reliable nuclear guardians...

"President Obama's comment to a Spanish-language television station in Miami that Venezuela doesn't pose a 'serious' threat to national security has provoked a storm of criticism from Republicans. According to Obama, 'what Mr. Chavez has done over the last several years has not had a serious national security impact on us. . . . My main concern when it comes to Venezuela is having the Venezuelan people have a voice in their affairs and that you end up ultimately having fair and free elections, which we don't always see.'"

"WASHINGTON — One day before leaving for Prague to sign an arms-control agreement with Russia, President Obama on Tuesday outlined a major shift in the nation's nuclear security policy that won plaudits from defense experts, nuclear watchdog groups and even a former top Bush-era nuclear security official.

'Like all complicated decisions, it (Obama's policy) has strengths and weaknesses...

This article and its corresponding map describe the various locations in Pakistan that relate to uranium enrichment and other nuclear processing facilities.

"The Pentagon outlined a plan Thursday for slowing the growth of military spending, including cutting the size of the Army and Marine Corps, retiring older planes and trimming war costs. It drew quick criticism from Republicans, signaling the difficulty of scaling back defense budgets in an election year."

"Ever since Venezuelan strongman Hugo Chávez acknowledged his bout with cancer in a dramatic July 1 address to the nation, his countrymen have been kept guessing about his condition. 'I am free of illness,' Chávez, 57, said upon returning to Venezuela after the latest in a series of visits to Cuba for specialized medical care. ... Indeed, weeks earlier, Chávez already had declared himself to...

"It is no secret that since the emergence of Iraq as a Shiite state after the invasion of the United States, there has been a major battle between Iran and Saudi Arabia for a new balance of power in the Middle East.

In its simplest form this is a battle between Sunni and Shiite forces in Iraq. The more complicated version is a proxy war in Lebanon, where Saudi Arabia supports Sunni...

"As the 2012 State of the Union approaches, the public continues to give the highest priority to economic issues. Fully 86% say that strengthening the economy should be a top priority for the president and Congress this year, and 82% rate improving the job situation as a top priority. None of the other 20 issues tested in this annual survey rate as a top priority for more than 70% of Americans...

"The consequences of a military strike against Iran would be disastrous, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin wrote in a wide-ranging editorial Monday.

'Russia is worried about the growing threat of a military strike against Iran,' Putin said in an editorial carried by the RIA Novosti news agency. 'If this happens, the consequences will be disastrous. It is impossible to imagine the...

"The events of the past year seem to have led the United States to adopt a harder-eyed approach with China. Advancing cooperation is still the order of the day, but the run-up to Chinese President Hu Jintao's visit to the United States has been characterized by an unusually frank set of speeches and commentaries by senior U.S. officials that highlight the systemic challenges of the...

"Hackers in China are the world’s 'most active and persistent perpetrators' of economic cyber espionage, and Russian spy agencies are actively seeking to steal U.S. technology, according to a report released by American intelligence services on Thursday.

The 2011 report by the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive (ONCIX) included a focus on cyber threats for the first...

"RSA has traced the attack against its network, resulting in the compromise of sensitive information relating to its two-factor SecurID authentication system, to two groups, working for one nation state."

This article from Gallup polling contains a variety of charts on the public's opinion of Russia from 1989 to 2011.

"20 years after the fall of the Soviet Union, the U.S. and Russia are far from the trusting partners that we perhaps should be."

Hart attempts to draw a parallel between the United States and Russia and their security, energy, and leadership interests in 21st century leadership.

"Russia threatened on Wednesday to deploy missiles to target the U.S. missile shield in Europe if Washington fails to assuage Moscow’s concerns about its plans, a harsh warning that reflects deep cracks in U.S.-Russian ties despite President Barack Obama’s efforts to 'reset' relations with the Kremlin.

President Dmitry Medvedev said he still hopes for a deal with the U.S. on missile...

"Last year, Russia surpassed the United States as the developing world’s leader in arms deals, according to a new report by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). But Russia has increased military shipments to anti-U.S. states like Iran and Venezuela, not to mention potential adversaries like China, which concerns U.S. policymakers far more. Experts say Iran—as well as Syria—may have...

"RSA Security is offering to provide security monitoring or replace its well-known SecurID tokens—devices used by millions of corporate workers to securely log on to their computers—'for virtually every customer we have,' the company's Chairman Art Coviello said in an interview.

In a letter to customers Monday, the EMC Corp. unit openly acknowledged for the first time that intruders had...

"Cyber attacks may not be a new phenomenon but the recent successes scored against high-profile targets including CitiGroup, Google, RSA and government contractors such as Lockheed Martin underscore the targets' current failure to block security threats enabled by the Internet. Malicious hackers use the very same technology that enables online banking, entertainment and myriad other...

"Americans who favor establishing a no-fly zone over Libya hope that such an effort will save lives. What Americans have not learned is exactly what transgressions warrant the use of American force. The primary constitutional function of the U.S. Government is to defend against threats to the national interest. However, because the definition of 'interest' has expanded by leaps and bounds, the...

"Whether you are for or against combat drones, they're here to stay. In fact, their use will only expand. You might be disturbed by this news, but that doesn't change the reality. Even if the United States and its allies stopped using and building drones, Pandora's Box has already been opened. Fifty other nations are now developing combat drones of their own. That's what happens with useful...

"According to an analysis, conducted by Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI, Belarus is one of the main suppliers of weapons to Syria. According to SIPRI, Belarus ranked second in the list in 2007-2011.

The share of weapons supplied by Belarus to Syria in 2007-2011 was 17% of the total. Most of the weapons are supplied by Russia in this country (78%). Then goes Iran...

"The U.S. armed forces have spent the past decade fighting two of the largest counterinsurgency campaigns in their history."

"Researchers who launched an experimental cyber attack caused a generator to self-destruct, alarming the federal government and electrical industry about what might happen if such an attack were carried out on a larger scale, CNN has learned."

"More than a decade and a half after the Cold War ended, the world's combined stockpile of nuclear warheads remain at a very high level: more than 20,500. Of these, some 4,800 warheads are considered operational, of which nearly 2,000 U.S. and Russian warheads are on high alert, ready for use on short notice."

"While the Obama administration pursued a policy of 'strategic patience' toward North Korea during its first two years in office, Pyongyang continued to create 'facts on the ground.'

In this period and during the last years of the Bush administration as well, North Korea conducted nuclear weapons tests and flight tests of missiles. It built a uranium enrichment plant and is constructing...

"More malware is now coming out of China than from any other country, according to a new report from Symantec.

The United States still leads the world in the number of malware attacks sent from mail servers. Symantec's report found U.S. mail servers responsible for distributing 36.6 percent of all global malware in March, followed by China at 17.8 percent and Romania at 16.5 percent....

"The doomed regime of Bashar Assad scheduled a referendum to be held in 10 days time on a proposed new constitution. In the document, the role of the Ba'ath Party as the dominant force in society is downgraded, so that every political party is allowed to compete in parliamentary elections. Has the Messiah finally arrived in Damascus? Not really... the proposed constitution is full of clauses that make a mockery of any expectation for a genuine democratic transformation."

"The inherent advantages of U.S. Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) drones—like the Predator, Reaper, and Global Hawk—for spying on potential adversaries and attacking suspected militants has made them the default counterterrorism tools for the Obama administration. Unlike manned aircraft, or special operations raids, MALE drones can hover directly over hostile territory for between...

"Concerns over Iran's nuclear program have peaked since a November 2011 IAEA report warned of its possible military dimensions and Iran made a decision to enrich uranium up to 20 percent levels, bringing it closer to weapons-grade uranium. Iran repeatedly claims its nuclear activities are for peaceful purposes. The United States, the EU, and other countries such as Canada have ratcheted up...

"The diplomatic ties between Iran and Venezuela go back almost fifty years and until recently amounted to little more than the routine exchange of diplomats. With the election of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in 2005 the relationship dramatically changed. Today I believe it is fair to say they have created a flourishing partnership rooted in a shared anti-American rhetoric and policy...

"Last year, the U.S. Navy bought 59,000 microchips for use in everything from missiles to transponders and all of them turned out to be counterfeits from China.

Wired reports the chips weren't only low-quality fakes, they had been made with a 'back-door' and could have been remotely shut down at any time.

If left undiscovered the result could have rendered useless U.S. missiles...

"This elaborate Great Game theorizing all makes sense. But there is another, simpler explanation: Most ordinary Pakistanis loathe America — indeed, not only America, but the whole of the non-Muslim world — and are only too happy to support jihad against the NATO forces next door in Afghanistan.

Pakistani support for the Taliban is not just a cynical expression of foreign-policy...

"Sony announced their network had been breached, but released limited details regarding the attack vector. This announcement was a precursor to a series of new attacks against other Sony online properties and ultimately the shutdown of the PlayStation Network. On May 13th, Veracode Researcher, Chris Lytle, published his blog post on the anatomy of the PSN attack."

"When China’s president, Hu Jintao, visits here next week, the exchange rate between Chinese and American currency will inevitably become a big topic of conversation.

China has been holding down the value of its currency, the renminbi, for years, making Chinese exports to the United States cheaper and American exports to China more expensive. The renminbi’s recent rise has been too...

"A group calling itself Lulz Security embarked on a nihilistic hacking spree against high-profile corporations and government agencies. Yesterday morning, it was boasting of its latest coup – bringing down the websites of the Brazilian government and the president – an action marked with a Twitter message beginning 'TANGO DOWN.'"

"Pakistan and India are upgrading their Cyber War capabilities, partly by calling on allies for help. India has become a big customer of Israeli military equipment, and this now includes assistance in protecting themselves from Cyber War threats, especially from Pakistan. Meanwhile, Pakistan has found China to be a useful source of Cyber War technology. While Israel has some of the best...

"Throughout history new technologies have revolutionised warfare, sometimes abruptly, sometimes only gradually: think of the chariot, gunpowder, aircraft, radar and nuclear fission. So it has been with information technology. Computers and the internet have transformed economies and given Western armies great advantages, such as the ability to send remotely piloted aircraft across the world to...

"The world's interest in all things United States is showing Tuesday in foreign media and social media coverage of Hurricane Sandy's impact on the East Coast."

"Relations between the United States and North Korea have seesawed for decades, with neither side fully trusting the carrots the other had offered. In recent years, Kim Jong Il played his one card — his nuclear program — to the hilt. He used it to extract badly needed energy and food assistance from the United States and other countries, all the while developing the program behind the scenes....

The New York Times offers background on Hugo Chavez's history in Venezuela--from Chavez's rise to power, radical political turn in 2006, and repeatedly controversial statements at the UN.

"Xi Jinping, the heir apparent to the leadership of the Chinese Communist regime, came to America to meet the president, dine with the vice president, visit a farm in Iowa—following in the 1959 footsteps of Nikita Khrushchev—and attend a basketball game in Los Angeles. The Iowa visit was designed to remind Americans that Xi, who visited Iowa 27 years ago, has a long-standing attachment to...

"USCYBERCOM is responsible for planning, coordinating, integrating, synchronizing, and directing activities to operate and defend the Department of Defense information networks and when directed, conducts full-spectrum military cyberspace operations (in accordance with all applicable laws and regulations) in order to ensure U.S. and allied freedom of action in cyberspace, while denying the...

North Korea shutters its atomic reactor and is no longer making plutonium for nuclear bombs, prompting aid shipments to flow to the impoverished regime that struggles with shortages of electricity and food.

A new American intelligence analysis of a deadly torpedo attack on a South Korean warship concludes that Kim Jong-il must have authorized the torpedo assault.

"Sources have confirmed that the U.S. Department of Defense over recent months purchased 59,000 microchips to use in Navy equipment that control everything from missiles to transponders, according to report in Joseph Farah’s G2 Bulletin.

But all of the chips turned out to be cheap knock-offs from China, and they ultimately were not installed, according to sources."

"The Pentagon said Monday it plans to participate in new military exercises with South Korea, the first direct military response from the United States to the sinking of a South Korean warship by what officials called a North Korean torpedo."

"American intelligence agencies, in an unusually blunt public criticism of China and Russia, reported to Congress on Thursday that those two foreign governments steal valuable American technology over the Internet as a matter of national policy."

"'A quarrel in a far-away country between people of whom we know nothing.'"

"The US government has long maintained, reasonably enough, that a defining tactic of terrorism is to launch a follow-up attack aimed at those who go to the scene of the original attack to rescue the wounded and remove the dead. Morally, such methods have also been widely condemned by the west as a hallmark of savagery. Yet, as was demonstrated yet again this weekend in Pakistan, this has...

The failure of the first round of talks between the United States and North Korea over its nuclear weapons programmes will intensify the debate in Washington over Pyongyang's intentions.

"The Obama administration said Tuesday it is negotiating a possible reduction in U.S. intelligence operatives and special operations officers in Pakistan as the two countries try to mend relations badly strained by the arrest and detention of a CIA security contractor for killing two Pakistanis."

"A vast electronic spying operation has infiltrated computers and has stolen documents from hundreds of government and private offices around the world, including those of the Dalai Lama, Canadian researchers have concluded.

In a report to be issued this weekend, the researchers said that the system was being controlled from computers based almost exclusively in China, but that they...

"Venezuela's President Hugo Chavez returned to Caracas last Sunday after completing a whirlwind tour of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Iran, Syria, Libya, and Portugal. Chavez's goal was to advance agreements 'to accelerate the fall of imperialist (read American) hegemony and the birth of the new world of equilibrium and peace,' as he stated in Damascus. While the rhetoric is familiar, the...

"The Venezuelan security debacle is as enlightening as it is tragic. It offers a cautionary tale about the limits of easy explanations, prescriptions, and predictions when it comes to crime. Standard narratives about high crime in Latin America put income inequality at the heart of the problem, and higher human-development levels at the core of the solution. Such assessments are not concocted...

"Followers of cancer-stricken strongman Hugo Chávez are stunned after nearly 3 million Venezuelans voted Sunday to select a unity candidate to compete in presidential elections scheduled for October. Venezuelan democrats are unified and optimistic today, but Chávez and his henchmen already have made their moves to hold on to power at all costs. If the opposition has any real hope of defeating...

"Operation Aurora, the moniker given to the attacks on Google and several others, has developed into a security nightmare and political chess game. With so many questions left unanswered, there is still no clear proof that Aurora was a government attack. In truth, public information points not to a sanctioned attack by the Chinese government, but Malware kits and criminals keeping with...

"In reality, any threat from China will take a far less antiquated [atomic bomb] form. Just as it is already a world leader in future technologies - such as solar panels - so it has invested deeply in cyberwarfare, which it routinely uses to steal sensitive industrial materials such as blueprints.

If it ever clashed with the US (and a naval conflict in the North Pacific is the most...

"Just consider what one single, isolated attack on American soil more than a decade ago did to Sullivan, Packer and company: the desire for violence which that one attack 11 years ago unleashed is seemingly boundless by time or intensity. Given the ongoing American quest for violence from that one-day attack, just imagine the impact which continuous attacks over the course of a full decade...

"Venezuela’s dictator Hugo Chávez was informed five years ago that his close ally Gen. Henry Rangel Silva – the man whom he recently named Defense Minister – is involved in cocaine smuggling.

Rangel Silva’s appointment to that key security post – coming on the heels of the return of Chávez henchman Diosdado Cabello to senior political posts – indicates that narco-generals are...

"North Korea is the last Stalinist state on earth, and in 2006 it became the latest country to join the nuclear club. Over the past two decades, it has swung between confrontation and inch-by-inch conciliation with its neighbors and the United States, in an oscillation that seems to be driven both by its hard-to-fathom internal political strains and by an apparent belief in brinksmanship as...

Chart or Graph

ReuseThisBag.com offers this very detailed infographic on 9/11 about what happened on that tragic day as well as what Americans think about the attacks today.

"The nations with the largest numbers of active military personnel generally fall into one of two categories — either the populous and wealthy or the war-torn."

"Pakistan does have border problems, however: with Afghanistan, where al Qaeda and the Taliban have reconstituted themselves."

"The graphic depicts China official defense budget since 1994, and associated Defense Intelligence Agency estimates of actual defense expenditure. All figures in 2006 US Dollars."

"Amnesty's 2010 Death Penalty Report named China as the top executor with thousands of executions."

This timeline depicts all of the terrorist attacks on American soil that have resulted in one or more deaths.

This chart compares the 2001-2011 economic freedom score of Iran to that of the United States. The U.S. registers as "mostly free," while Iran's score registers in the "repressed" category.

Pakistan has received considerable Chinese and North Korean technology and other assistance for its ballistic missile program. As the title suggests, this map demonstrates how far Pakistan claims their missiles can reach.

The military branch in charge of China’s nuclear arsenal has acknowledged building a network of tunnels more than 3,000 miles long. For the past three years, a team of Georgetown University students has studied those tunnels, led by their professor, a former senior Pentagon strategist.

"When asked which country represents the greatest danger to the U.S., more Americans volunteer Iran (28%) than name any other country, though nearly as many (22%) name China."

"Here’s an updated version of our Cyber Attacks graphic showing a world map and chart illustrating targeted cyber attacks on more than 70 companies, government bodies and organizations...."

"The following graphic lists the ten most/least corrupt countries based on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index for 2011. The Corruption Perception Index assigns countries and territories with scores between 0 (highly corrupt) and 10 (very clean)."

This timeline provides a history of some of the most famous hacking cases since the 1960s.

Gallup polling documents American opinion regarding Russia's impact on American and international affairs.

"Work to build a nuclear power plant at Bushehr began in 1974, but came to a halt in 1979 with the Islamic revolution."

This map shows the location of various sites important to Iran's nuclear program. A heavy water plant at Arak, a nuclear power station at Bushehr, an uranium conversion plant at Isfahan, and an uranium enrichment plant at Natanz make up some of the important areas.

Iran's misery index for the 1991-2008 period is presented in the accompanying chart. It must be stressed that Iran's true inflation, interest and unemployment rates are probably higher than those reported. In consequence, the true level of the index is probably higher than the one in the accompanying chart.

This map provides a quick look at the country of Libya including its GDP rate and other statistics.

"Libya’s current military leadership presides over a largely stored and surplus catalogue of weaponry with poor maintenance records. ... The military also lacks sufficient numbers of trained personnel to operate the military equipment currently in its possession."

This map shows the location of Libyan military facilities, energy infrastructure, and conflict.

"China currently is capable of targeting its nuclear forces throughout the region and most of the world, including the continental United States."

This map describes the various locations in Pakistan that relate to uranium enrichment and other nuclear processing facilities.

"On April 22, 2011 Sony announced their network had been breached, but released limited details regarding the attack vector."

China’s size makes it a major supplier of a great many goods, but trade with the U.S. is nonetheless concentrated.

"[P]ublicly available information and occasional leaks make it possible to make best estimates about the size and composition of the national nuclear weapon stockpiles...."

"Analysis of projections made by the U.S. intelligence community during the past decade for the growth in Chinese ICBM warheads shows that they have so far been too much too soon (see figure ... [above])."

"Among those who are aware of the recent tensions between the U.S. and Iran over Iran’s nuclear program and disputes in the Persian Gulf, a majority say that it is more important to take a firm stand against Iranian actions (54%) than to avoid a military conflict with Iran (39%)."

This map shows the location of the 10 worst terrorist attacks of all time. It also includes the number of deaths and injuries in each one.

Analysis Report White Paper

"Despite the growing complexities of cyberspace and the significant strategic challenge cyber warfare poses on the United States’ vital interests few specific rules for cyber warfare exist. The United States should seek to develop and maintain cyber warfare rules in order to establish internationally accepted norms, mitigate damage to critical governmental, commercial and private resources,...

"This Report sets forth the Commission’s analysis of the U.S.-China relationship in the topical areas designated by the Commission’s Congressional mandate; these are the areas the Commission is to consider, and about which it is to make recommendations to the Congress. These include China’s proliferation practices; the qualitative and quantitative nature of economic transfers of United States...

During the latter half of the 20th century, U.S. defense efforts were driven by the need to respond to the threat posed by the Soviet Union. While the Soviet threat was considerable, the U.S. response was facilitated by the focus on a single adversary. The current situation is quite different. Today, the U.S. faces a disturbingly diverse set of national security challenges ranging from Somali...

"Chinese direct investment into the United States is more than doubling annually, with over $5 billion in 2010 alone. A Special Report undertaken by Asia Society’s Center on U.S.-China Relations and the Kissinger Institute on China and the United States at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars provides the most comprehensive study to date of Chinese FDI in the United States and...

[T]his article argues that U.S. China policy ... began more than a half century before the Open Door notes and was in fact reflected in the treaty of Wangxia.

"Russia’s leaders pursue modest economic and political liberalization to mitigate pressures for more comprehensive political and economic reforms. The political authorities tolerate groups that have non-political agendas and mobilize to address specific problems, but repress groups, by social manipulation when possible but with force if necessary, that seek to overturn the existing political...

"Chinese investment in the rest of the world, especially in the United States, continues to be a controversial topic. It is important for policymakers to understand the scope of China’s investments, and unless there is a specific national security consideration, market principles should guide the American policy response. Heritage Foundation China and international economics expert Derek...

"A series of high-profile events in 2010 and 2011 highlighted the increasing and multifaceted threat of cyberattacks. These include the espionage hacks on Google and Western energy companies (WSJ), the Stuxnet (VanityFair) infiltration of Iranian nuclear sites, and the targeting of government networks in South Korea (BBC). U.S. cybersecurity policy continues to evolve to meet these challenges...

"Education is critical. This is especially true in Pakistan, an ethnically and religiously diverse nation of around 180 million people. Precisely because of this diversity, education plays a critical role in the fabric of Pakistani life, with the potential of bringing the society together or tearing it apart. Especially important are the roles that educators play: how and what they teach and...

"China’s Foreign Minister was right to say that China and the U.S. are not in a cyberwar. It is not in China’s interest to attack the U.S. or destabilize Wall Street, as the high degree of economic interdependence means an attack would harm China as much as the U.S. But this is not the same as saying all is well in cyberspace. There is real risk to both the bilateral relationship and to...

"The American military faces a growing threat of potentially fatal equipment failure—and even foreign espionage—because of counterfeit computer components used in warplanes, ships, and communication networks. Fake microchips flow from unruly bazaars in rural China to dubious kitchen-table brokers in the U.S. and into complex weapons. Senior Pentagon officials publicly play down the danger, but...

"Charles Krauthammer originally delivered this essay as a 6,000+ word address for the Irving Kristol Lecture at the American Enterprise Institute in February 2004. In his essay, Krauthammer examines four contending schools of American foreign policy: isolationism, liberal internationalism, realism, and democratic globalism. He concludes that a variant of realism and democratic globalism, which...

"In 2010, we entered a new decade in the world of cybersecurity. The prior decade was stained with immaturity, reactive technical solutions, and a lack of security sophistication that promoted critical outbreaks, such as Code Red, Nimda, Blaster, Sasser, SQL Slammer, Conficker, and myDoom—to name a few. The security community has evolved and grown smarter about security, safe computing, and...

"The Russian cyber crime underground has evolved into a sophisticated, if loose-knit community with its own periodical literature and cultural mores. The 'Russian hacker' has become a stereotype. But as with many stereotypes, there is some truth involved. Russia does have a large population of talented hackers that are under less pressure from the law than their counterparts elsewhere. Western...

The Obama Administration’s engagement policy toward Iran has failed to defuse the nuclear standoff. Instead, Iran has continued to conceal and lie about its nuclear weapons program in an attempt to stall until it can present the world with a nuclear fait accompli. A nuclear armed Iran not only will have a dramatically increased ability to threaten its neighbors and U.S. interests, but will...

"North Korean dictator Kim Jong-il's faltering health has raised concerns about regime stability. Succession rumors have been swirling for years, with Kim's third son, Jong-eun, currently rumored to be Kim's favored choice. But regardless of whether leadership stays in the family or is wrested away by a challenger, a new North Korean leader is likely to keep in place the same belligerent...

"The United States is so focused on the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan that it sometimes forgets that these two conflicts do not necessarily dominate how either regional military forces or the various extremists hostile to the US and the West perceive the lessons of recent conflict. There is an equal tendency to forget the past and the influence of the military experience of regional wars...

"Hugo Chávez poses a challenge to U.S. interests in the Americas.

Just how much of a challenge, though, is a matter of disagreement among experts. With Venezuelan oil revenues soaring and U.S. influence damaged by Iraq and inequalities in the region, Chávez has successfully managed to broaden and deepen his own influence and appeal while serving as an active spoiler for the United...

This chronology provides information on selective instances of North Korean provocations between June 1950 and 2003. The purpose of this report is to place current provocations in the context of past actions in order to better judge their significance and to determine changes in trends.

One of President Barak Obama's first experiences as new president was to receive a briefing on the U.S. strategic nuclear war plan and his role as Commander in Chief to authorize the military to use it if necessary.

"On January 14, 2010 McAfee Labs identified a zero-day vulnerability in Microsoft Internet Explorer that was used as an entry point for Operation Aurora to exploit Google and at least 20 other companies. Microsoft has since issued a security bulletin and patch."

"Descriptively we are still in the first decade of the post-Cold War era, but conceptually the security preoccupations are already very different from the possibilities envisaged in the first few years after the Berlin Wall was brought down. In analysing what went wrong, I give priority to the implications for arms control policy debates and the choices for the United States, which, as the...

"One Western leader above all others forced the Soviets to give up the Brezhnev Doctrine and abandon the arms race, brought down the Berlin Wall, and ended the Cold War at the bargaining table and not on the battlefield: President Ronald Reagan."

"Two decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union and Russia’s emergence as an independent state, Moscow is no longer America’s strategic rival. Yet, while Russia is not our enemy, neither has it become a friend. Washington and Moscow have succeeded in overcoming Cold War confrontation, but have not developed sustainable cooperative relations. A better-managed bilateral relationship is...

"Russia and the United States have been unable to establish a common understanding in their bilateral diplomacy on most aspects of cybersecurity. In spite of a 1998 declaration of their interest in joint leadership of global responses to cybersecurity challenges, the two countries have acted more often than not like enemies guarding sensitive national security secrets rather than as allies...

"The Kremlin is using anti-Americanism as a strategic tool for pursuing domestic and foreign policy goals. Through media controlled or owned by the state, the Russian government is deliberately spreading poisonous anti-U.S. propaganda at home and abroad, blaming many of Russia's problems on the West, particularly the United States. The partial success of this policy exposes a number of serious...

"The U.S. officially designates four countries as state sponsors of terrorism--Iran, Syria, Cuba, and Sudan. It is high time to add Venezuela to the list. Far from being merely a populist showman and bully, Hugo Chávez is a reckless leader who collaborates with Colombian narcoterrorists and Islamist terrorists, pals around with brutal Iranian dictator Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, is a virulent anti-...

"The United States, as the world's strongest economy and also the most technically advanced, is the center of the world's research and development and, therefore, the principle target of this new wave of economic espionage. Since the end of the Cold War, however, there has been a virtual feeding frenzy of economic and industrial espionage by other nations - both friend and foe alike - to steal...

"The U.S. should collaborate with individual European allies as well as the European Union to set an agenda that better defends transatlantic interests from Russian aggression."

"The purpose of this report is two-fold: 1. To present an assessment of the state of economic crime in the United States, and; 2. Based on that assessment, to indicate areas where additional research, legislative action, training, cooperation between law enforcement and industry, and international cooperation are required."

"The increased presence of Chinese telecommunications products and services in the American marketplace is the result of bilateral investment between the United States and China. Chinese companies have offered U.S. investors (investment banks, venture firms, business investors, and others) opportunities to balance risk and gain potentially higher rates of return by participating in the world’s...

"Computer network exploitation represents the leading edge of signals intelligence in the information age. The proliferation of computer systems throughout governments, businesses, and civic organizations represents a boon for would-be cyber spies.

Awareness of cyber vulnerabilities, and even basic information security practices, is in its infancy, and largely absent in most...

With a military option to resolve the nuclear issue unfeasible and the near-term collapse of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) unlikely, the best way to end the cycle of crises is a negotiated settlement that addresses the security needs of both sides.

"The United States traditionally has had close relations with Venezuela, the fourth major supplier of foreign oil to the United States, but there has been friction with the Chávez government. U.S. officials have expressed concerns about human rights, Venezuela’s military arms purchases, its relations with Cuba and Iran, and its efforts to export its brand of populism to other Latin American...

"In the months and years ahead, it is plausible, perhaps even likely, that the issue of renewed Western economic assistance for the DPRK, or North Korea, will return once again to policymakers' agendas. We should therefore ask: Could major inflows of Western aid lead to an economic revitalization of the DPRK? Could they even be the key to jump-starting the North Korean economy? The US provided...

Video/Podcast/Media

"America's long, complicated history with Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi goes back three decades. During Ronald Reagan's presidency, Gadhafi was public enemy No. 1 — just as President John Kennedy's nemesis had been Cuba's Fidel Castro."

"As Iran continues to develop its nuclear program, America is confronted with a difficult set of policy options. Ted Galen Carpenter will outline those options, which include urging the UN Security Council to impose stronger sanctions, attempting to undermine the clerical regime, and seeking a diplomatic 'grand bargain.' Which policy holds the best prospect of advancing American interests?...

"Richard Lapper, author of a new Council Special Report on U.S.-Venezuela relations and Latin America editor of the Financial Times, discusses Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez's reelection. Though it was a landslide victory for Chavez, Lapper says Venezuelans are 'more likely to be into baseball than Bolivarianism' and it will be difficult for Chavez to create a political movement similar to...

In August of 2011, experts weigh in on the possibilities awaiting Libya after Qaddafi's overthrow. How confident should Western leaders be in Libya's political future?

"In the past decade, Iran has increased its influence in Latin America. Considering Iran’s long history of bad actions, this increased activity in the Western Hemisphere should give Americans pause. This year alone, Iran refused to abandon its nuclear ambitions, its military sat idly by as Iranian students stormed a British embassy, it attempted to assassinate a Saudi ambassador in Washington...

As the title suggests, this podcast discusses Russia's friends, some of which are hostile to the United States, particularly Venezuela. Stanley Kober also discusses the fact that Russia holds a great deal of U.S. debt, a fact which could cause problems for America in the future.

This podcast discusses the strained relationship between Russia and the United States. Carpenter declares, "it's important to recognize that the United States and Russia have a lot of interests in common." Carpenter goes on to explain Russia's important role in deterring the Iranian missile program, as well as many other areas where the U.S. would benefit from a positive relationship with...

"Venezuela's caudillo [strongman] President Hugo Chavez has his sights set on an extended stay in executive office well beyond the possibilities of even a second Obama Administration. Like his hero Fidel Castro, Chavez aspires to remain a thorn in the side for multiple U.S. presidents. With his Bolivarian Revolution and 'socialism for the 21st Century,' Chavez has harnessed Venezuela's...

"Trita Parsi, founder and president of the National Iranian American Council, discusses the course of U.S.-Iran relations and escalating tensions surrounding the nuclear question, as part of CFR's Academic Conference Call series."

This presentation describes Iran's connection to various Latin American countries such as Venezuela. The speakers discuss the Iranian nuclear threat and how Iranian interaction with other countries could affect the nation's nuclear progress.

"National Security Agency whistle blowers Thomas Drake, former senior official; Kirk Wiebe, former senior analyst; and William Binney, former technical director, return to 'Viewpoint' to talk about their allegations that the NSA has conducted illegal domestic surveillance. All three men are providing evidence in a lawsuit by the Electronic Frontier Foundation against the NSA.

Drake says...

"Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad addressed the United Nation's General Assembly.

Delegates from the US, Israel and EU stormed out as Iran's leader was speaking."

"U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice speaks at The Heritage Foundation on June 18, 2008, about U.S. policy toward Asia."

A panel of experts discuss the state of cyber-security in the United States and certain measures that may be taken to improve the system. At time 1:18:00 the discussion becomes especially relevant.

"Iranian President Dr. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in his 7th address to the UN General Assembly in New York at the United Nations."

This video features a panel of young people who discuss their reaction to the possibility of an EMP attack.

"Ambassador Nicholas Platt (who accompanied Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China), veteran journalists Max Frankel and Mike Chinoy, and Asia Society's Orville Schell discuss China then and now and and the importance of Nixon's diplomatic breakthrough."

"On September 20th Hugo Chevas gave a speech at the United Nation. The title of the speech was 'Rise Up Against the Empire'."

"The U.S. alliance with Saudi Arabia, increasingly strained since the Arab upheavals last spring, faces further challenges over how to respond to Iran's nuclear ambitions, says F. Gregory Gause III, professor of political science at the University of Vermont.

'The Saudis would certainly see Iran crossing the nuclear threshold as a major security challenge,' says Gause, author of the...

"Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Venezuela's Hugo Chavez mocked US [for] its move to expel a Venezuelan diplomat at the start of a visit to four left-leaning Latin American nations."

Former U.S. Ambassador to the UN John Bolton criticizes the Obama Administration's reluctance to grant the American military a lead role in operations in Libya.

This video shows the reactions of young moms to a presentation on the negative effects an EMP attack could have on America.

President Obama unveils his new plan to fight cyber-crime. At time 09:35 he announces his plan for CYBERCOM, a new branch of the Defense Department that will be solely devoted to combating cyber-warfare and intellectual property theft.

"Address to the Nation on the Air Strike Against Libya."

"The Russian military says it has successfully tested the world's most powerful non-nuclear bomb. The device is said to be as potent as an atomic explosion, but without radioactive fallout. Until now, the U.S. had the most powerful vacuum bomb, which was tested in 2003."

CNN offers a brief video demonstrating the devastating effects a cyber-attack could have on America's electrical grid.

In the wake of Washington's "reset" with Russia, this Heritage Foundation panel explores "the risks posed by the reset of relations with Russia to America’s strategic interests, economic freedom, and human rights and the rule of law."

The first part of this panel is embedded above, the following eight parts can be found...

This video describes Pakistan's nuclear missile capabilities. According to this clip, Pakistan's missile is able to "travel up to 1,300 km."

Primary Document

"This doesn't mean we should isolate ourselves and refuse to seek an understanding with them. I intend to do everything I can to persuade them of our peaceful intent, to remind them that it was the West that refused to use its nuclear monopoly in the...

"The president calls it the most dangerous place in the world. The front line in the war on terror is now the rugged frontier lands of Afghanistan and Pakistan. It's where al-Qaeda terrorists and the Taliban have come back with vengeance in the years after 9/11, and where the White House has decided to surge more than 20,000 additional U.S. troops. This week, an unprecedented White House...

"The West is concerned about the stability of Pakistan. SPIEGEL spoke with President Asif Ali Zardari, 53, about failed peace talks with the Taliban, the possible whereabouts of Osama bin Laden and the safety of his country's nuclear arsenal."

This report examines the Iranian government's human rights record for the year 2009, specifically its level of respect for the integrity of the person, respect for civil liberties, respect for political rights, government corruption and transparency, governmental attitude regarding international and nongovernmental investigation of alleged violations of human...

"I am grateful to the Almighty Allah who granted me, once more, the opportunity to appear before this world assembly. I have the pleasure to express my sincere thanks to H.E. Joseph Deiss, president of the sixty-fifth session for his tremendous efforts during his tenure. I also would like to congratulate H.E Nassir Abdulaziz AI-Nasser on his election as the president of sixty-sixth session of...

"At 7 o'clock this evening eastern time air and naval forces of the United States launched a series of strikes against the headquarters, terrorist facilities, and military assets that support Mu'ammar Qadhafi's subversive activities. The attacks were concentrated and carefully targeted to minimize casualties among the Libyan people with whom we have no quarrel. From initial reports, our forces...

Annual Address to the Federal Assembly by Russian President Vladimir Putin. Putin outlines goals for the country in the years ahead and reassures previous national goals.

This piece provides brief descriptions, compiled by the U.S. Department of State, of China’s political, economic, and social institutions.

The U.S. Department of State provides official information regarding Venezuela's people, government, economy, and foreign-relations.

"The President signs the Iran Sanctions Act, saying that the Iranian government has failed to meet its obligations under Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and reiterating that the United States stands with the Iranian people as they pursue universal rights."

"I am very grateful to President Medvedev for taking the time to visit with me today. I'm particularly gratified because prior to the meeting, our respective teams had worked together and had developed a series of approaches to areas of common interest that I think present great promise."

"As President, one of my highest national security priorities is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. That's why my administration has aggressively pursued a comprehensive agenda of nonproliferation and nuclear security.

Leading by example, we agreed with Russia to reduce our nuclear arsenals through the new START Treaty, and I've urged the Senate to move forward with ratification...

"Thirty years ago today, the American Embassy in Tehran was seized. The 444 days that began on November 4, 1979, deeply affected the lives of courageous Americans who were unjustly held hostage, and we owe these Americans and their families our gratitude for their extraordinary service and sacrifice."

"Today North Korea said that it has conducted a nuclear test in violation of international law. It appears to also have attempted a short-range missile launch. These actions, while not a surprise given its statements and actions to date, are a matter of grave concern to all nations. North Korea's attempts to develop nuclear weapons, as well as its ballistic missile program, constitute a threat...

I want to acknowledge an important step forward today that will advance our national security. This afternoon the Senate Foreign Relations Committee voted in favor of the new START Treaty, and I am pleased that it did so with strong bipartisan support.

"We come together around the common commitment to strengthen our fight against terrorism. Terrorism has many faces, to be sure, but Iran and Libya are two of the most dangerous supporters of terrorism in the world. The Iran and Libya sanctions bill I sign today will help to deny those countries the money they need to finance international terrorism. It will limit the flow of resources...

"I am pleased that the United States and North Korea yesterday reached agreement on the text of a framework document on North Korea's nuclear program. This agreement will help to achieve a longstanding and vital American objective: an end to the threat of nuclear proliferation on the Korean Peninsula."

"The gathering and the distribution of news have long since ceased to be a local and individual occupation. They have become identified with great organizations have their representatives in all parts of the country and their publications in every important center. This service could only be performed by a mutual exchange of the most inclusive nature. How rapid and complete has been the growth...

This paper presents a comprehensive open source assessment of China’s capability to conduct computer network operations (CNO) both during peacetime and periods of conflict.

Transcript from a speech Hugo Chavez gave to the United Nations on September 20, 2006. In it, he calls out the United States as hegemonic.

"An Act To amend the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 to enhance United States diplomatic efforts with respect to Iran by expanding economic sanctions against Iran."

"The Iranian bungled operation to use proxies to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the United States and to purposefully plan the operation inside the United States is a stunning rebuke to the Obama administration’s policy of negotiation and isolation with the Iranians. Indeed, Republican and Democratic administrations since 1980 have failed to deal effectively with the harsh reality...

"On April 20, 2011, long-time 'China hand' Frank Lavin addressed an audience at The Heritage Foundation on the future of U.S.–China relations. How will the U.S. economic turmoil affect the Chinese economy? What is the impact of the 'Jasmine spring'? Which effects will China’s leadership transition have on relations between the two countries? What is the future of economic nationalism in China...

In terms of size, scope, and magnitude, trademark counterfeiting in China is considered by many to the most serious counterfeiting problem in world history.

This handout outlines the goals and strategies of the Department of Defense in 2010.

"The Atomic Energy Commission has announced that the Soviet Union is continuing the testing of nuclear weapons. This continued testing by the Soviet Union has occurred despite the fact that negotiations for the suspension of testing of nuclear weapons have since October 31 been under way at Geneva."

This statement reports on efforts to release "American airmen and other United Nations personnel detained in Red China."

"The final thing, a subject that I want to open up personally before we go to the questions, is merely the Korean question.

I wrote a letter to Mr. Rhee in which I earnestly tried to express what is my understanding and, I believe, the American understanding of how we got into that war, what we were trying to achieve, where we are now, and what we are trying to do. In no case have we...

This act intends to protect American government and businesses from any intellectual property theft or espionage.

Official letters between the United States and the Russian Foreign Ministry discussing the proposed START II.

"MODERATOR: Ladies and gentlemen, the Secretary of State of the United States of America Hillary Rodham Clinton and the Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Lavrov are signing a protocol and exchange of instruments of ratification of the treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on measures for reduction and modification of strategic offensive arms. With this...

Responding to Iran's secretive nuclear program and the fear that it might be developing nuclear weapons, President Obama issued another round of sanctions against the nation. The EU and UN also did the same.

"The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Commerce, and the United States Trade Representative, and with the President of the Export-Import Bank, the Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and other agencies and officials as appropriate, is hereby authorized to impose on a person any of the sanctions described in...

A Chinese Christian, Fei Ch’i-hao recounts the Boxer War from his perspective.

"Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.

The United States was at peace with that Nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its Government and its Emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed,...

"Since the beginning of my Administration, I have contemplated the desirability of an effort to end the present abnormal relations between the hundred and twenty-five million people of the United States and the hundred and sixty million people of Russia."

"The crisis between the United States and Libya that led to the declaration on January 7, 1986, of a national emergency has not been resolved. The Government of Libya continues to use and support international terrorism as evidenced by its involvement in the destruction of Pan Am Flight 103, in violation of international law and minimum standards of human behavior. Such Libyan actions and...

I am transmitting herewith, for the advice and consent of the Senate to ratification, the Protocol to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (the Protocol) signed at Lisbon, Portugal, on May 23, 1992.

This news conference contains President Bush's remarks on the events in Tiananmen Square.

In this interview, President Bush discusses an upcoming trip to Latin America. The President then explained that he would not be visiting Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, attributing the omission to lack of relevancy in addition to strained relations between Chavez and the U.S.

"The crisis constituted by the actions and policies of the Government of Iran, including its support for international terrorism, efforts to undermine Middle East peace, and acquisition of weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them, that led to the declaration of a national emergency on March 15, 1995, has not been resolved. These actions and policies are contrary to the...

"I have called you here today to announce a development of great importance in our continuing effort to prevent the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Today in Tripoli, the leader of Libya, Colonel Muammar al-Qadhafi, publicly confirmed his commitment to disclose and dismantle all weapons of mass destruction programs in his country. He has agreed immediately and unconditionally to allow...

"Last night the Government of North Korea proclaimed to the world that it had conducted a nuclear test. We're working to confirm North Korea's claim. Nonetheless, such a claim itself constitutes a threat to international peace and security. The United States condemns this provocative act. Once again North Korea has defied the will of the international community, and the international community...

I commend the Senate's action to give its consent to ratification of the Moscow Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions that President Putin and I signed on May 24, 2002, in Moscow, Russia.

"The present assemblage of the legislative branch of our Government occurs at a time when the interests of our people and the needs of the country give especial prominence to the condition of our foreign relations and the exigencies of our national finances. The reports of the heads of the several administrative Departments of the Government fully and plainly exhibit what has been accomplished...

"At noon today I sent a message to the Congress about the situation in Korea. I want to talk to you tonight about that situation, and about what it means to the security of the United States and to our hopes for peace in the world.

Korea is a small country, thousands of miles away, but what is happening there is important to every American."

In this speech, President Harry Truman outlines the American war effort in Korea. Truman frames the conflict by describing the efforts in Korea as an attempt to prevent "world war III."

"The convention and protocol are accompanied by the final act of the conference signed at the same time, which I transmit for the information of the Senate. This act embraces a declaration by the delegates of the United States of America and certain recommendations of the conference. The declaration made by the delegates of the United States is designed as a safeguard against any possible...

Mr. Chairman and distinguished Members of the Commission, it is my pleasure to have the opportunity to discuss China’s efforts in the realm of human rights, the rule of law and the environment and the prospects for U.S.-China cooperation on this critical issue.

The U.N. has indicated some willingness to resume diplomatic talks yet has also blocked a military site suspected to be associated with nuclear research, the IAEA reports.

"The Congress makes the following findings:

(1) The efforts of the Government of Iran to acquire weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them and its support of acts of international terrorism endanger the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States and those countries with which the United States shares common strategic and foreign policy objectives...

"This accession to our territory has been a bloodless achievement. No arm of force has been raised to produce the result. The sword has had no part in the victory. We have not sought to extend our territorial possessions by conquest, or our republican institutions over a reluctant people. It was the deliberate homage of each people to the great principle of our federative union. If we consider...

"The existing war with Mexico was neither desired nor provoked by the United States. On the contrary, all honorable means were resorted to to avert it. After years of endurance of aggravated and unredressed wrongs on our part, Mexico, in violation of solemn treaty stipulations and of every principle of justice recognized by civilized nations, commenced hostilities, and thus by her own act...

"The existing state of the relations between the United States and Mexico renders it proper that I should bring the subject to the consideration of Congress. In my message at the commencement of your present session the state of these relations, the causes which led to the suspension of diplomatic intercourse between the two countries in March, 1845, and the long-continued and unredressed...

"Previous to its declaration it was deemed proper, as a measure of precaution and forecast, that a considerable force should be placed in the Michigan Territory with a general view to its security, and, in the event of war, to such operations in the uppermost Canada as would intercept the hostile influence of Great Britain over the savages, obtain the command of the lake on which that part of...

Whereas the enemy by a sudden incursion have succeeded in invading the capital of the nation, defended at the moment by troops less numerous than their own and almost entirely of the militia, during their possession of which, though for a single day only, they wantonly destroyed the public edifices, having no relation in their structure to operations of war nor used at the time for military...

"British cruisers have been in the continued practice of violating the American flag on the great highway of nations, and of seizing and carrying off persons sailing under it, not in the exercise of a belligerent right rounded on the law of nations against an enemy, but of a municipal prerogative over British subjects. British jurisdiction is thus extended to neutral vessels in a situation...

"I, Jimmy Carter, President of the United States, find that the situation in Iran constitutes an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy and economy of the United States and hereby declare a national emergency to deal with that threat.

I hereby order blocked all property and interests in property of the Government of Iran, its instrumentalities and...

"From the first day the American Embassy was invaded and our diplomatic staff was seized as hostages by Iran, we have pursued every legal channel available to us to secure their safe and prompt release. On at least four separate occasions the world community, through the United Nations Security Council and through the International Court of Justice, has expressed itself clearly and firmly in...

"We continue to face a grave situation in Iran, where our Embassy has been seized and more than 60 American citizens continue to be held as hostages in an attempt to force unacceptable demands on our country. We're using every available channel to protect the safety of the hostages and to secure their release."

"Last February it was announced that withdrawals of U.S. ground combat forces from Korea would be held in abeyance pending the completion of a reassessment of North Korea's military strength and the implications of recent political developments in the region. That reassessment has been completed, and these policy issues have been discussed with our key allies in Asia, with principal defense...

"Whereas actual hostilities have long been practiced on the commerce of the United States by the cruisers of the French Republic under the orders of its Government, which orders that Government refuses to revoke or relax; and hence it has become improper any longer to allow the consul-general, consuls, and vice-consuls of the French Republic above named, or any of its consular persons or...

Speech given by President John Adams before Congress regarding what came to be known as the XYZ Affair and the United States response to France.

"This Government, as promised, has maintained the closest surveillance of the Soviet military buildup on the island of Cuba. Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island. The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the Western...

"This letter from Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to U.S. president George W. Bush, obtained by cfr.org, is presumed to be the first contact from an Iranian president to a U.S. leader since the 1979 revolution in Iran. The 8-page letter's accuracy was confirmed by official sources, though an official translation is still forthcoming. In it, Amadinejad calls in to question U.S. actions in...

"Libyan-U.S. rapprochement has unfolded gradually since 2003, when the Libyan government accepted responsibility for the actions of its personnel in regard to the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 and announced its decision to eliminate its weapons of mass destruction and long-range missile programs. In response, U.S. sanctions were gradually removed, and, on May 15, 2006, the Bush...

"After more than 40 years of authoritarian repression and eight months of armed conflict, fundamental political change has come to Libya. The killing of Muammar al Qadhafi on October 20 and the declaration of Libya’s liberation by the interim Transitional National Council on October 23 marked the end of the Libyan people’s armed revolt and the formal beginning of the country’s transition to a...

"Over forty years ago, Muammar al Qadhafi led a revolt against the Libyan monarchy in the name of nationalism, self-determination, and popular sovereignty. Opposition groups citing the same principles are now revolting against Qadhafi to bring an end to the authoritarian political system he has controlled in Libya for the last four decades. The Libyan government’s use of force against...

"This decade of progress has undermined the goals of those who have preached that the ideological differences between America and the Soviet Union must inevitably lead to war. We see now that we can both prosper in spite of the differences. The two nations have never gone to war with one another. The fact is that no two nations have more to lose in war than the United States or the Soviet...

"Over the past 15 months the North Koreans have pursued a stepped-up campaign of violence against South Korean and the American troops in the area of the Demilitarized Zone.

Armed raider teams in very large numbers have been sent into South Korea to engage in sabotage and assassination."

"Ahmadinejad's bombast has stiffened the Bush Administration's resistance to talking with Tehran. And discontent with him is growing at home. Last week a few dozen students shouted 'Death to the dictator!' as Ahmadinejad delivered a speech. Two days later, he met TIME's Scott MacLeod at Ahmadinejad's private office in Tehran for a 75-minute interview, his second with TIME in three months."

China has made great progress in its pursuit of economic growth and development, which has allowed China to achieve higher living standards for the Chinese people and has increased China’s international profile.

"The Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation (hereinafter the Military Doctrine) is one of the fundamental strategic planning documents in the Russian Federation and constitutes a system of the views officially adopted in the state on preparations for armed defense and on the armed protection of the Russian Federation."

"China’s rapid rise as a regional political and economic power with global aspirations is an important element of today’s strategic environment – one that has significant implications for the region and the world. The United States welcomes the rise of a peaceful and prosperous China, and it encourages China to participate as a responsible international stakeholder by taking on a greater share...

To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2012 for military activities of the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe military personnel strengths for such fiscal year....

The record shows that the North Koreans have been quick to go to the conference table with the US when one or more of the following conditions have been obtained.

Text of, protocols and supporting documents for the New START.

"In early and mid-2009, the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) embarked on a course that included a series of extremely provocative military actions, a shift in power toward the military, emphasis on ideological purity, rising criticism of the United States, and going forward with its nuclear and missile program in spite of sanctions and objections from much of the rest...

The aggressive challenge to world order recently reignited by North Korea and the failure of the 1994 agreement between the United States and North Korea to achieve decisive change demand a new strong response.

"North Korea has been among the most vexing and persistent problems in U.S. foreign policy in the post-cold war period. The United States has never had formal diplomatic relations with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (the official name for North Korea). Negotiations over North Korea’s nuclear weapons program have consumed the past three U.S. administrations, even as some analysts...

"In his April 2009 speech in Prague, President Obama highlighted 21st century nuclear dangers, declaring that to overcome these grave and growing threats, the United States will 'seek the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons.' He recognized that such an ambitious goal could not be reached quickly – perhaps, he said, not in his lifetime. But the President expressed his...

"The situation is still very fluid. There remains a degree of uncertainty and there are still regime elements who pose a threat. But this much is clear: The Qaddafi regime is coming to an end, and the future of Libya is in the hands of its people."

"At the dawn of the 21st Century, the United States now faces what could be called a Superpower Paradox. Our unrivaled supremacy in the conventional military arena is prompting adversaries to seek unconventional, asymmetric means to strike what they perceive as our Achilles heel.

At least 25 countries now possess—or are in the process of acquiring and developing—capabilities to inflict...

This is the sister bill of SOPA.

"Cooperation between the United States and China is imperative to address the many vexing challenges we face, from countering proliferation, to addressing climate change, to promoting global economic security. Now, developing the habits of cooperation is not easy. We have a lot of work to do. But we are both committed to building a lasting framework of trust that will support a cooperative...

It is a great honor to welcome you to the first meeting of the Strategic Economic Dialogue between the United States and China.

"Two years ago at the first of these summit meetings, your Government gave me the opportunity to speak directly with you, the people of the Soviet Union. Last year, at our second meeting, General Secretary Brezhnev spoke on radio and television to the people of the United States. And now, tonight, I appreciate this opportunity to continue what has become a tradition, a part of our annual...

"Speaker Chae, Vice Speaker Yun, Vice Speaker Koh, distinguished Members of the National Assembly, and honored guests:

I'm privileged to be among such friends. I stand in your Assembly as Presidents Eisenhower and Johnson have stood before me. And I reaffirm, as they did, America's support and friendship for the Republic of Korea and its people."

"For the past 3 months, I've been silent on the revelations about Iran. And you must have been thinking: 'Well, why doesn't he tell us what's happening? Why doesn't he just speak to us as he has in the past when we've faced troubles or tragedies?' Others of you, I guess, were thinking: 'What's he doing hiding out in the White House?' Well, the reason I haven't spoken to you before now is this...

"The course of the transactions in relation to the United States and France which have come to my knowledge during your recess will be made the subject of a future communication. That communication will confirm the ultimate failure of the measures which have been taken by the Government of the United States toward an amicable adjustment of differences with that power. You will at the same time...

"President von Weizsacker has said: 'The German question is open as long as the Brandenburg Gate is closed.' Today I say: As long as this gate is closed, as long as this scar of a wall is permitted to stand, it is not the German question alone that...

Excerpts from a speech given by Chairman Mao Tse-tung at China’s Supreme State Conference in 1958.

The stated intention of this act was to protect intellectual property through increased governmental regulation of the Internet. It has not yet passed into law.

The text of, protocols for, and various documents pertaining to START I.

"This is a translation, by Nazila Fathi in The New York Times Tehran bureau, of the October 26 speech by President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to an Islamic Student Associations conference on 'The World Without Zionism.' The conference was held in Tehran, at the Interior Ministry."

This document briefly outlines the events leading up to the Korean War.

Before dawn on Sunday, 25 June 1950, the North Korean army moved forcefully into the South, whose outgunned defenders were generally overwhelmed. Seoul, capital of the Republic of Korea, fell in four days.

George W. Bush and Vladimir Putin deliver a news conference regarding U.S.-Russia cooperation and 2006 nuclear talks.

"Unmanned systems are proving to have a significant impact on warfare worldwide. The true value of these systems is not to provide a direct human replacement, but rather to extend and complement human capability in a number of ways. These systems extend human reach by providing potentially unlimited persistent capabilities without degradation due to fatigue or lack of attention. Unmanned...

"The Nation continues to enjoy noteworthy prosperity. Such prosperity is of course primarily due to the high individual average of our citizenship, taken together with our great natural resources; but an important factor therein is the working of our long-continued governmental policies. The people have emphatically expressed their approval of the principles underlying these policies, and...

"To this state of general peace with which we have been blessed, one only exception exists. Tripoli, the least considerable of the Barbary States, had come forward with demands unfounded either in right or in compact, and had permitted itself to denounce war on our failure to comply before a given day. The style of the demand admitted but one answer.

I sent a small squadron of frigates...

"During the wars which for some time have unhappily prevailed among the powers of Europe the United States of America, firm in their principles of peace, have endeavored, by justice, by a regular discharge of all their national and social duties, and by every friendly office their situation has admitted, to maintain with all the belligerents their accustomed relations of friendship,...

"There is a firm and perpetual peace and friendship between the United States of America and the Bey and subjects of Tripoli, of Barbary, made by the free consent of both parties, and guarantied by the most potent Dey and Regency of Algiers."

This is the official U.S. Office of the Historian's account of U.S.-Russian relations. Relations between the two nations began in the early 19th century but halted with the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. In 1991, the U.S. recognized the Russian Federation.

"Perhaps the best approach is to continue to monitor the activities of Venezuelan officials abroad—making every effort to identify individuals who are breaking the law. Identifying key law breakers rather than condemning the totality of the government seems to produce better results. Furthermore, the United States ought to continue to promote democratic politics...

"Chairman Chaffetz, Chairman Mack, Chairman Chabot, Ranking Member Tierney, Ranking Member Engel, Ranking Member Ackerman, distinguished members of the committees, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today to discuss Venezuela’s sanctionable activities."

"The destruction of the Spanish fleet at Manila, followed by the taking of the naval station at Cavite, the paroling of the garrisons, and the acquisition of the control of the bay, has rendered it necessary, in the further prosecution of the measures adopted by this Government for the purpose of bringing about an honorable and durable peace with Spain, to send an army of occupation to the...

"I sincerely regret that I cannot be present at the opening of this session of the Congress. I am thus prevented from presenting in as direct a way as I could wish the many questions that are pressing for solution at this time. Happily, I have had the advantage of the advice of the heads of the several executive departments who have kept in close touch with affairs in their detail and whose...

"The Imperial German Government on the thirty-first of January announced to this Government and to the governments of the other neutral nations that on and after the first day of February, the present month, it would adopt a policy with regard to the use of submarines against all shipping seeking to pass through certain designated areas of the high seas to which it is clearly my duty to call...

"Whereas, the Congress of the United States in the exercise of the constitutional authority vested in them have resolved, by joint resolution of the Senate and House of Representatives bearing date this day 'That the state of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government which has been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared';"

President Wilson asks Congress for a declaration of war against Germany in order to preserve liberty, freedom for all people, and the destruction of autocratic government. While he points out the illegal actions taken by the German Navy, his reasons for going to war are moral; the German ideals fly in the face of U.S. ideals.

One of the most important actions you and your colleagues can take to help us protect our intellectual property rights in China is to continue to call attention to the Chinese authorities that you consider the theft of US intellectual property a high priority.

Books

FAQs

Could cyber-attacks be used to cause physical damage? What other vulnerabilities might be exploited in a cyber-attack? Could an attack disrupt infrastructure such as power grids? All these questions and more are answered in the FAQ below.

How likely is a domestic terror attack? Who might commit such an attack? What kind of damage could a domestic terror attack cause? What is the U.S. government doing to stop it? These questions and others are answered in this FAQ.

Is the threat of an EMP a legitimate concern? What kind of infrastructural damage is an EMP capable of? How long would the consequences of such an attack last? All these questions and more will be answered in this FAQ.

One of the most serious threats to national security, individual privacy, and protection of one's assets comes from Intellectual Property (I.P.) espionage. What kind of information may be stolen? Who is or has the capability of engaging in effective I.P. espionage? Has this already happened? What can the United States do? All these questions and more are answered in this FAQ.

Iran has been talked about for decades. Relations between Iran and the United States have been tense since the early 1950s. Some believe that Iran poses an existential threat to the U.S.; others maintain that, despite its rhetoric, it is mostly harmless. Does Iran pose a significant threat? What are the sentiments of its leaders and its citizens? Do they agree? Is Iran working on a...

Missile defense. It's been talked about for decades, some of us even grew up watching Patriot missiles shoot down Iraqi Scud missiles in the first Gulf War. But where do things stand today? Is it still needed? Should I care? Those questions and more are answered in the FAQ below.

Link

Engage

Click thumbnails below to view links

Online

Become a fan of Intellectual Takeout on Facebook!
Share Intellectual Takeout with friends, family, and colleagues on Facebook and Twitter!
Education history in America is important to know. ITO traces how education has changed from the colonial period to present day America.
At Intellectual Takeout, we think it's about time freedom went viral. Before our generation is the opportunity to embrace freedom, to unleash each individual's potential, and to have a prosperous future. And yet it seems that almost everyone running our cities, states, and federal government is intent on destroying freedom and burying us in debt to pay for it. If you, like us, believe that...
In the genre of documentaries revealing the problems with public education, "Kids Aren't Cars" focuses on helping us understand how schools are modeled after a factory system and what we need to do to change them. Understandably, treating kids as if they are a product to be manufactured has had detrimental effects on children going through the system and the overall level of education in America...
"Many parents and taxpayers feel helpless because the problems can seem so monumental. 'Kids Aren't Cars' director Kyle Olson reviews what he learned in the filmmaking process and the small things individuals can do that will add up to make a big difference." Here's Kyle being interviewed on a few things you can do and share with friends, family, and educators: Part 1Part 2
We all know Facebook is awesome for keeping up with friends, sharing about your life, and even distributing ideas. One great new way to get people thinking is to take advantage of the new banner profile with the help of Intellectual Takeout. Here's what one of our banners looks like loaded up on a Facebook profile: If you haven't changed your banner profile, than Facebook is likely ...
Tired of business getting a bum rap? We are, too. Here's your chance to share on Facebook the good news that business is good, beautiful, and makes life better.
While many documentaries on the education system focus on various examples of failure, "Flunked" takes a bit different tack. While certainly acknowledging and exposing the failures of the system, "Flunked" also seeks out individuals and approaches that ARE working in education. The hope is that these points of hope may serve as examples for others working in education.  Here's the trailer:...
Okay, so your friends and family keep telling you to jump on the social media bandwagon, but you have no idea what the fuzz is about. Here’s the deal: The Internet gives liberty-loving folk like us an opportunity we have never had before: to make the case for individual liberty, limited government and free market economics instantly and globally. But with the vast amounts of information...

Offline

Looking for an internship? If so, Intellectual Takeout has an opportunity for you. We have plenty of work to do as well as ideas to spread, and we need your help to get it done. If you're interested in an internship with Intellectual Takeout, you likely share our passion and you're excited about the possibility of working for a great cause. That said, you might have a few questions about what "...
The Association of American Educators (AAE) advances the teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection, as well as promoting excellence in education so that our members receive the respect, recognition and reward they deserve.
Are you concerned your child isn't getting the education necessary to compete in the global economy or even, perhaps, to carry on the lessons and learning of Western Civilization? If so, you have a number of choices. You could, of course, consider changing schools to a charter school, private school, or even homeschooling. If that's overwhelming for you right now, you can always supplement your...
Curiously, not a few individuals are realizing that their education (K-12 and even college) neglected to provide them with as much understanding of the world as they would like. At Intellectual Takeout, we believe that however you feel about your education, there is still much to be learned. To that end, we'd like to refer you to one book and a collection of "study guides" that serve as...
Sure, the idea of homeschooling is likely overwhelming. Indeed, homeschooling is a big commitment and a lot of work. That said, there's a reason why more and more parents are turning to homeschooling as the best option for their child(ren)'s education(s). Perhaps you are starting to realize that the public school system has changed a lot since you last attended it. Maybe you can't afford private...
Know your rights with Flex Your Rights guide to the "10 Rules for Dealing with Police."
In a highly regulated society such as ours, it's very easy to get yourself in trouble with the law. Learn more about how to protect yourself with the 5th Amendment and how to interact with the police.
Let's face it, most of us love to watch TV and movies. A wonderful way to spread ideas is to embrace our love of the cinema by hosting a movie night with friends and family.  There are numerous documentaries that do a fantastic job of sharing the ideas of liberty. You can pull a small group of friends together at your house or even consider asking a local restaurant or tavern to let you...
Watch "Waiting for Superman" to learn about the problems with the public education system.
Another movie that tells the story of the failing public school model in the United States is “The Lottery”. It takes its own unique look at the systems by focusing on the use of lotteries to choose which children will be plucked from failing public schools and put into more successful public charter schools. Here’s the trailer:  You can watch the whole movie right now with the help of Hulu...
While there are a variety of really good documentaries about the failing public school systems in America, "The Cartel" stands alone in its frontal assault on the teacher unions, particularly those in New Jersey. If you'd like to get an inside look into how some teacher unions operate and the effects they have on education, you'll want to watch "The Cartel."From the movie's website: "This movie...
How often do you hear conservatives being called a bunch of knuckle-dragging Neanderthals? Here's the reality: Conservatism, classical liberalism, and libertarianism have a rich, intellectual heritage reaching back many millennia. Our ideas are not just some historical relics from bygone eras; they are the very foundation of Western Civilization in general, amd the United States in particular....
Sadly (or happily for some), life goes on after college. So does the fight for freedom. Building friendships, networking, and growing the movement is critical after college. If our ideas are to be preserved and promoted, you need to stay involved. Plus, in a time when the individual seems to be ever more isolated and adrift, these groups can help plug you into social networks you can use....
Okay, so we don't expect you to drive a wooden stake into your flat screen. Plus, we're total hypocrites since we watch some TV. But here's the point: People waste a ton of time watching TV. If you're cool with government taking over your future, than keep watching Dancing with the Stars. If you consider yourself to be a free man or woman and want to live in a free society, then watch what you...
A great way to make a difference on your campus by spreading the ideas of individual rights, limited government, and free markets is to tutor. Plus, you can occasionally make a little bit of money. Depending on the subject matter, you will be discussing a variety of ideas, key thinkers, and theories. As anyone who has tutored knows, there are almost always opportunities to expand upon a topic....

On Campus

We've built Intellectual Takeout to provide you with quick, easy access to information. In time, we hope to become your one-stop-shop for the ideas of freedom. If your professor allows you to bring your laptop to class (if not, you can use an iPhone), we recommend keeping a tab open to Intellectual Takeout. As we continue to generate new content on the site, you will be able to fact check the...
When it comes to campus life injustices, student fees rank high on any list. On most campuses across the country a mandatory student fee is assessed to each student at the beginning of the year. A portion of this fee, which may be several hundred dollars, will go toward funding various political, religious, and interest groups.  A college requiring you to support groups espousing ideas which...
If you're not happy with the direction of the country and you want to take back your future, at some point you will have to do something. It's not enough to just know that we're going in the wrong direction. You actually have to step out and get involved. Most college campuses have conservative and libertarian student groups. Find one of them to join. Below is a list of some of the larger non-...
Now that you're at college and the initial excitement has worn off, maybe you're thinking that the course selection is a bit biased and you'd like some options. So how do you (the consumer) get the college (the business) to change up its offerings? It certainly won't be easy. Nevertheless it's something that should be done--particularly since you're footing the bill. A good, education in a free...
Whatever activism you choose to do on campus, you need to get your story out. A popular tactic used by the Left is to isolate and intimidate freedom-loving students. You're not alone and there are a lot of people in your city, state, and country that can probably support your efforts. They just need to know what is happening. Whenever you can, record in-class bias, discrimination against...
The reality is that most students (and people for that matter) won't speak out. It's called human nature and it was recognized in the Declaration of Independence: "...all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed." While you might feel alone when debating a teacher,...
In the land of the free and the home of the brave, speech codes are a particularly odious example of politically correct repression on many a college campus. In some ways, college campuses are the least free places for thinking and speech in America. Your best friend for fighting your school's repressive speech codes is the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE). Here's a short clip...
Running for office isn't easy, even in college. Not everyone is cut out for it, either. For those of you who are, this completely non-partisan section is for you. If you are inclined to pursue student government, we're not going to spend time on telling you how to get elected. A good place to go for ideas and training is CampusReform.org. Rather, we want to help you in office, as a believer in...

Related Content