Podcast: Shoes, Undies and Airplane Security

Jim Harper
Cato Daily Podcast
Cato Institute
January 7, 2010

"The attempted Christmas-day airline bombing was a miserable failure, not of security but of an attempt to circumvent it. Tensions are still running high for travelers after the attempt. The dreaded, invasive full-body scan is now among the proposed solutions. Jim Harper, Director of Information Policy Studies at the Cato Institute, says a more effective security solution would be one that is private, distributed and varied."

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"One of Germany’s police unions is calling for the controversial 'naked scanners' at airports to be abandoned after a trial at Hamburg showed an unacceptably high rate of false alarms. ...

The Welt am Sonntag newspaper reported on Sunday that the scanners were sounding alerts 70 percent of the time, according to an internal report. The security devices, which critics refer to...

"The TSA has been all over the news these past few weeks over their latest countermeasures in security enhancement. To find out how we got to where we are today, we decided to start at the beginning and take a look at notable events as well as legislation."

"Let's not let security-vs.-liberty diatribes hijack the debate. Keep the focus where it belongs: on how best to fight terrorists. Scanners don't undermine our privacy or freedom. In fact, they help keep terrorists from killing us -- the ultimate deprivation of liberty. On the other hand, they are no cure-all for terrorism. They should be used judiciously."

"Saying that body scanners violate Islamic law, Muslim-American groups are supporting a 'fatwa' — a religious ruling — that forbids Muslims from going through the scanners at airports.

The Fiqh Council of North America — a body of Islamic scholars — issued a fatwa this week that says going through the airport scanners would...

The costs of increased transportation security run to tens of billions of dollars a year world-wide, and authorities still are groping to close obvious vulnerabilities a decade after the 2001 terrorist attacks.

"The explosive device smuggled in the clothing of the Detroit bomb suspect would not have been detected by body-scanners set to be introduced in British airports, an expert on the technology warned last night.

The claim severely undermines Gordon Brown's focus on hi-tech scanners for airline passengers as part of his review into...

"The massive push to fix airport security in the United States after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, led to a gold rush in technology contracts for an industry that mushroomed almost overnight. Since it was founded in 2001, the TSA has spent roughly $14 billion in more than 20,900 transactions with dozens of contractors.

In...

The companies with multimillion-dollar contracts to supply American airports with body-scanning machines more than doubled their spending on lobbying in the past five years.

"The political action committee of L-3 Communications -- one of the two contractors behind the full-body scanning machines now used in more than 60 U.S. airports -- has doled out more political cash this election cycle than at any other time, the Center for Responsive Politics has found."

"The body scanners coming to your local airport provide marginal benefits — if any — in detecting weapons and explosives hidden on travelers. They aren't worth the cost in money — let alone in civil liberties.

The Transportation Security Administration has put these machines — X-ray and radio-wave booths that look...

This press release declares that "[a]irport passenger screening with private security screeners under federal supervision is dramatically more efficient and less costly than the all-federal screening model, according to a Transportation Committee investigative report."

"Did you hear about the Camden cop whose disabled son wasn't allowed to pass through airport security unless he took off his leg braces?"

"In the tense new world of air travel, we're stripped of shoes, told not to take too much shampoo on board, frowned on if we crack a smile.

The last thing we expect is a joke from a Transportation Security Administration screener - particularly one this stupid."

"Giving Transportation Security Administration agents a peek under your clothes may soon be a practice that goes well beyond airport checkpoints. Newly uncovered documents show that as early as 2006, the Department of Homeland Security has been planning pilot programs to deploy mobile scanning units that can be set up at public events and in train stations, along with mobile x-ray vans capable...

"The Transportation Security Administration has created more gantlets at American airports than most travelers realize. It has continually changed the rules for flying since it first deployed its 40,000+ army of screeners across the land. Americans are at much greater risk of being arrested or fined in the airport for not kowtowing to federal agents."

"Bipartisan support should be immediate.  For fiscal conservatives, it's hard to come up with a more wasteful agency than the TSA.  For privacy advocates, eliminating an organization that requires you to choose between a nude body scan or genital groping in order to board a plane should be a no-brainer.

But won't that...

"The main danger to liberty here is not the TSA but rather a set of American attitudes which, at the same time, take our current 'war' both far too seriously and also not nearly seriously enough.

Overall, I'd like to see less posturing in these debates and more Thucydides."

"The employees of the TSA can now be unionized. Public sector unions are a remarkable survivor of day's of old, which is interesting since the theory of unions is that workers need organized protection against private capital. It happens, however, that unions are most successfully organized from among those living off the taxpayer, and least successful among those...

"The novelty of the Sept. 11 attacks notwithstanding, the primary threat to commercial planes is, was and shall remain the smuggling aboard of explosives, which is what happened on Pan Am 103. The bomb came onboard in a suitcase. The hijack paradigm changed forever on 9/11, rendering the inflight takeover concept unworkable for a terrorist.

...

"Representative John A. Boehner, the soon-to-be Republican speaker, pledged recently that he would fly commercial airlines back home to Ohio, passing up the military plane used by the current speaker, Nancy Pelosi, a Democrat. But that does not mean he will endure the hassles of ordinary passengers, including pat-downs and other new security screenings."

"Last week's attempted terror attack on an airplane heading from Amsterdam to Detroit has given rise to a bunch of familiar questions.

How did the explosives get past security screening? What steps could be taken to avert similar attacks? Why wasn't there an air marshal on the flight? And, predictably, government officials have...

The Transportation Security Administration says it found 1,238 firearms — an average of almost four a day — at its airport checkpoints last year. The number has been on the rise since 2007.

"The controversy surrounding the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and its use of porno scanners, pat-downs and feel-ups has split the conservative movement into two camps. It's the authority-loving cons versus the liberty-loving cons.

I'm firmly in the latter camp, along...

"Nearly two-thirds of Americans support the new full-body security-screening machines at the country's airports, as most say they put higher priority on combating terrorism than protecting personal privacy, according to a new Washington Post-ABC News poll. But half of all those polled say enhanced pat-down searches go too far."

"Since 9/11, cryptology expert and security consultant Bruce Schneier has been one of the most pointed critics of the government's anti-terrorism security programs. In his 2003 book 'Beyond Fear,' he coined the phrase 'security theater' to refer to measures which are undertaken not because they will be effective at thwarting attacks, but because the agencies...

"A handful of federal lawmakers are invested in one of the companies behind the controversial full-body scanning machines now in more than 60 U.S. airports. The individual investments are worth thousands, and in some cases tens or hundreds of thousands, of dollars."

"With a $14 trillion federal government debt, a $1.3 trillion annual federal government budget deficit, and government policies that are leading people to reduce their economically productive activity, we cannot afford the expensive and failed bureaucracy that the TSA provides. Nor can we afford to spend money on the TSA budget to cater to special interests...

"What the TSA is doing is mostly security theater, a pageant to reassure passengers that flying is safe. Reassurance is necessary if commerce is going to flourish and if we are going to get to grandma's house on Thursday to give thanks for the Pilgrims and for freedom. If grandma is coming to our house, she may be wanded while barefoot at the airport because...

In an amusing fashion, Jeffrey Goldberg describes the ease with which suspiciously acting people can get through airport security. Goldberg then reports on his many attempts to board planes with fake IDs and other forbidden items. The...

"I've been traveling a lot lately, so I've been scanned, I've been patted, and on one occasion there was even a close encounter with my 'junk.' But I am not among those who are cross with the men and women of the Transportation Security Administration. Why not? Because while waiting in the security queue, I always pause to remember who is really responsible for...

"As Murray Rothbard pointed out, most of the vexing 'social problems' of the day would fade away if we lived in a voluntary society based on private property. This result holds in the specific application of airport security.

In the long run, there is no tradeoff between freedom and security. To paraphrase Franklin, those who...

Composed several months after September 11, 2001, this article questions the legitimacy of increased airport searches of average American citizens. Otteson declares that Americans have a right to be free from the "unreasonable searches" that are often conducted...

"Despite what many young Americans seem to think, aircraft sabotage did not begin with the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. It has been with us for decades. Here is a list of some of the worst air-related terrorist acts of the '70s, '80s and '90s."

"It's difficult to catalog all of the myriad controversies besieging the Transportation Security Administration this week, but the biggest seems to be the new policy forcing select passengers to choose between an open-palm, very invasive pat-down or a full-body scan that produces a very detailed image of your most private regions. There's also the 35,000 full-body-...

"After the close of business last Friday, Transportation Security Administration chief John Pistole announced that no more airports will be permitted to participate in the congressionally authorized program under which all U.S. airports are allowed to have passenger and baggage screening performed by TSA-certified private security firms instead of TSA's own federal...

"Those blurry but revealing airport body scanner images that caused a public uproar last year are being replaced by a gray, cookie-cutter image of the human form.

After six months of testing at three airports, including Reagan National, the Transportation Security Administration said Wednesday that the new software would be installed on 241 units at 41 airports that use millimeter wave...

"Let's do it. I'm announcing the TSA Logo Contest. Rules are simple: create a TSA logo. People are welcome to give ideas in the comments, but only actual created logos are eligible to compete. (When my website administrator wakes up, I'll ask him how we can post images in the comments.) Contest ends on February 6. Winner receives copies of my books, copies of...

"As I've frequently noted in my Airport Security Newsletter, intrusive screening of everyone is inherent in the TSA's current approach to airport security, which treats all air travelers as equally likely to be a terrorist threat. The only feasible way to remove body-scanning (or the intrusive pat-down alternative) as standard procedure is to change TSA's screening...

"A retired special education teacher on his way to a wedding in Orlando, Fla., said he was left humiliated, crying and covered with his own urine after an enhanced pat-down by TSA officers recently at Detroit Metropolitan Airport."

"An eight-year-old boy who lost his dad to cancer traveled to Disney World to get his mind off the tragedy, but his family says he suffered yet another blow after his Disney toys were taken by TSA workers in Ft. Lauderdale."

"Air travel will never be 100 percent safe. But it would take a lot of successful attacks to make it more dangerous, for example, than driving. If the government were to level with the American people about specific threats — rather than touting threat in the abstract and promising perfect security — the people would likely accept the security procedures that meet...

"Any would-be terrorist can easily outsmart the ubiquitous backscatter scanners found in major airports around the world, two scientists say.

The Transportation Security Administration's X-ray backscatter scanners have been the center of a widespread controversy, following concerns from privacy advocates that they take nearly...

"One of the more extreme government abuses of the post-9/11 era targets U.S. citizens re-entering their own country, and it has received far too little attention. With no oversight or legal framework whatsoever, the Department of Homeland Security routinely singles out individuals who are suspected of no crimes, detains them and questions them at the airport, often for hours, when they return...

"The Obama Administration has decided that the government will engage in limited collective bargaining with airline security screeners. This decision will reduce the Transportation Security Administration's (TSA) effectiveness. Collective bargaining impairs rewarding merit and raises the likelihood of illegal labor disputes. The limitations on union negotiations...

"Seeking to end a debate that has brewed for nearly a decade, the director of the Transportation Security Administration announced on Friday that a union would be allowed to bargain over working conditions on behalf of the nation's 45,000 airport security officers, although certain issues like pay will not be subject to negotiation."

"Courts evaluating airport-screening technology tend to give great deference to the government's national security interest in preventing terrorist attacks. But in this case, there's a strong argument that the TSA's measures violate the Fourth Amendment, which prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures."

Chart or Graph

What led to the TSA? Why was it created? What can TSA agents do?

"As a hazard, terrorism, at least outside of war zones, does not inflict enough damage to justify substantially increasing expenditures to deal with it."

"In short, the technology to reliably screen massive numbers of bags, at reasonable cost, is simply not available yet."

"The L-3 Communications PAC contributed $466,300 to federal candidates and committees between January 2009 and Oct. 13, the date of the most recent campaign finance reports, the Center's research shows."

Here is a table showing the top 15 House members to receive money from defense contractor L-3 Communications this cycle, along with the amount and which committees each person sits on.

"Here is a table of all eight lawmakers whose 2009 personal financial disclosure forms, which were filed in May, noted holdings in L-3 Communications...."

"The new rules may not make a major difference in people's decisions about whether to fly."

When asked "about the likelihood of potential terrorist attack targets in the United States," Gen-Y and Moms generally believe that it is very likely.

TSA Security Theater Described In One Simple Infographic.

Analysis Report White Paper

In this article, the ACLU outlines the reasons why body scanners are an ineffective security measure and a violation of airline passengers' privacy rights.

In 2007, Congress mandated that the Trans­portation Security Administration must screen 100 percent of all cargo carried by passenger planes by August 2010. Screening each and every piece of cargo—approximately 7.6 billion pounds are transported by U.S. air carriers every day—places a tremendous burden on an already struggling economy, not to mention American taxpayers.

This report calls for three such reforms, to address the three fundamental flaws in the current approach. First, to remove the inherent conflict of interest, the TSA should be phased out of performing airport screening services. Instead, its role should become purely policymaking and regulatory (and better balanced among all transportation modes).

"Little information exists on the performance of x-ray backscatter machines now being deployed through UK, US and other airports. We implement a Monte Carlo simulation using as input what is known about the x-ray spectra used for imaging, device specifications and available images to estimate penetration and exposure to the body from the x-ray beam, and sensitivity...

"Many people hold that terrorism poses an existential threat to the United States. But a look at the actual statistics suggests that it presents an acceptable risk -- one so low that spending to further reduce its likelihood or consequences is scarcely justified."

Current law mandates that all checked bags at 429 passenger airports be screened by explosive detection systems (EDS) or alternative means by December 31, 2002.

This report provides a variety of charts and statistics gleaned from a survey of Moms and individuals from Generation Y. The research gives a glimpse into some of the deepest concerns American citizens are facing in 2011, including the economy and national security.

Video/Podcast/Media

"In recent weeks, there has been a huge backlash against the Transportation Safety Administration (TSA) over full-body scanners and pat downs at select airports across the country. Attorneys and co-host Bob Ambrogi welcomes Patrick Smith, airline pilot, author, and air travel columnist, who writes the column, Ask the Pilot, for Salon.com and Jim Harper, Director of...

"The attempted Christmas-day airline bombing was a miserable failure, not of security but of an attempt to circumvent it. Tensions are still running high for travelers after the attempt. The dreaded, invasive full-body scan is now among the proposed solutions. Jim Harper, Director of Information Policy Studies at the Cato Institute, says a more effective security...

"TSA's body scanners cost us liberty, they demand blind adherence to government in the name of security, and [though] the security gains are small, the imposition is quite large. David Rittgers, legal policy analyst at the Cato Institute, offers his thoughts."

"Bloggers are voicing their outrage online over the implementation of genital-touching pat-downs on passengers by Transportation Security Administration airport workers as part of new security measures. Shira Lazar reports."

"Congressman Ron Paul (TX-14) joins Judge Andrew Napolitano on Freedom Watch to discuss the responsibility of government in light of the recent outcry against the TSA's airport security standards."

"We're the Transportation Security Administration. We're working hard to make sure you enjoy a safe flight. And while we cannot apprehend every terrorist, you can count on us to do what we're trained to do whenever there's a security breach--overreact to tiny threats.

Overreact to tiny threats; ignore the big ones. That's what we do, and we do it better...

Ten years after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, federalized aviation security has proven costly, reactive, and an intrusive failure.

"Security Expert Bruce Schneier spoke about airport security as the last line of defense against terrorists. He was the keynote speaker at the day-long conference examining the Transportation Security Agency's use of body scanners and enhanced pat-downs at airports around the country."

Judge Andrew Napolitano discusses the constitutionality and effectiveness of TSA's enhanced pat-down procedures with former Arkansas governor Mike Huckabee.

"According to Professor James Otteson, there is a trade-off between liberty and security. Consider the recent procedures instituted by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) in the name of defending us against terrorism. Are these procedures too invasive?"

This amusing video describes the TSA's security patdowns and body scans to the tune of the Hokey-Pokey.

"Congressman Ron Paul (TX-14) introduces the American Traveler Dignity Act in response to regulatory measures taken by the TSA to implement potentially dangerous X-Ray screening procedures or invasive 'pat-downs' by TSA officials. Campaign for Liberty has released a written statement opposing this regulatory overreach by the TSA."

"John Tyner, who declined TSA pat down, talks about passengers rights."

"John Pistole testified on the new airport full body screening machines and the Obama administration's recent decision to allow limited collective-bargaining for its transportation security officers."

"The Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee held a confirmation hearing on the nomination of John Pistole to be assistant secretary of Homeland Security and Administrator, Transportation Security Administration (TSA). A major focus of the hearing was on potential unionization of airport security screeners."

"New Mother Harassed and Threatened by TSA because she requests alternate screening for her breast milk. As a repeat traveler, the TSA singled her out to make an example out of her. She spends over an hour in the 'Special Inspection' area and is forced to miss her flight." TSA's website makes available the regulations on...

This hearing addressed body imaging and enhanced patdown measures TSA has implemented. Testimony and committee members' questions centered around the issues of efficacy, the balance between security and individual rights, and traveler complaints.

View...

This video reports on a judge's ruling concerning patdowns at New Mexico high school proms. Despite the ruling that TSA officials must conduct the searches, this video reports that local law enforcement searched the students at the prom.

Primary Document

Alaska State Representative Cissna's testimony recounts her initial experience of an invasive pat-down triggered by full-body scanner due to her prostetic breast and her subsequent refusal to undergo it again on a later trip. Her statement also includes responses by "people across the country in support of my stance against the new TSA policies as well as...

"Urging the Transportation Security Administration to reconsider its use of pat-down search procedures adopted on October 28, 2010, and to conduct pat-down searches using less invasive but equally effective procedures; and urging the United States Congress to exercise greater oversight of the Transportation Security Administration."

The following letter was written by Captain Dave Bates, the president of the Allied Pilots Association, to his 11,000 member-strong organization:

Fellow Pilots,

In response to increased threats to civil aviation around the world, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has implemented the use of...

"Amends Federal transportation law to establish in the Department of Transportation (DOT) the Transportation Security Administration, to be headed by an Under Secretary of Transportation for Security responsible for security in all modes of transportation, including: (1) civil aviation security, and related research and development activities; (2) security...

"Our briefing addresses the following questions: (1) To what extent did the design of TSA's study of the cost and performance of passenger and checked baggage screening services at selected SPP and non-SPP airports affect the usefulness of the study? (2) To what extent has TSA taken actions to identify and eliminate any unnecessary overhead/supervisory redundancies...

"EPIC has filed a lawsuit to suspend the deployment of body scanners at US airports, pending an independent review. On January 6, 2011, EPIC filed its reply brief, stressing its core assertion that 'the TSA has acted outside of its regulatory authority and with profound disregard for the statutory and constitutional rights of air travelers.' EPIC asserts that the...

"A bill to modernize the air traffic control system, improve the safety, reliability, and availability of transportation by air in the United States, provide for modernization of the air traffic control system, reauthorize the Federal Aviation Administration, and for other purposes."

"Prohibits any law of the United States from being construed to confer immunity for a federal employee or agency, or any individual or entity that receives federal funds, who subjects an individual to any physical contact, x-rays, or millimeter waves, or aids in the creation of or views a representation of any part of an individual's body covered by clothing, as a...

Among other things, this law "[r]equires that, within three years of passage, the secretary of homeland security establish a system that screens 100 percent of cargo transported on passenger aircraft."

"When Americans witness three year-old children being aggressively patted down by TSA screeners—as was the case this month—our airline security screening system is broken."

"The ACLU has received over 1000 complaints from travelers in the United States about the TSA's new pat-downs, providing a unique vantage point on what is taking place at airports around the nation. These complaints came from men, women and children who reported feeling humiliated and traumatized by these searches, and, in some cases, comparing their psychological...

"Transit systems are attractive and visible targets for terrorism because they carry large numbers of people in concentrated, highly repetitious, and predictable patterns that are designed for easy access. In response to events in Madrid and London that demonstrated that commuter rail and mass transit are realistic terrorist targets, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office of Science...

This morning, I would like to spend a little time talking about three distinct aspects of TSA’s risk-based security, or RBS, efforts.

"1. Using the most credible dose and risk estimates that we have, one can say that the individual radiation-induced cancer risks associated with a few whole-body x-ray backscatter scans are likely to be extremely small. Our best estimate is that the chance of any given individual developing cancer as a result of the x-ray exposure from a few scans is around 1 in 10...

"We appreciate the opportunity to appear before you today to discuss the Transportation Security Administration's (TSA) use of Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT) at airport security checkpoints, including the effectiveness and safety of this technology and our emphasis upon protecting passengers' privacy. The use of AIT enables TSA to carry out its core mission to...

"[T]he real answer to the question of effectiveness turns on what the TSA does with the information provided by AITs—how AITs are integrated into a broader system of air transport security. We know more about this, and most of what we know suggests that AITs are generally not effective at contributing to greater security of airplanes and airports. In fact, it...

In his testimony, Baker emphasizes that the threat of a terrorist attack is real and that TSA's measures have been proportionate and reasonable. He does propose, however, that TSA be allowed to collect more data on travelers - such as through the implementation of a "trusted traveler" program - to identify potential terrorists while speeding up security...

Authored by members of both parties, the Traveler Dignity Acts are composed of HCR 80 - Dignity in Travel Resolution Opposing Unreasonable Searches, HB 1937 – Dignity in Travel Act Prohibiting Indecent Groping Searches, and HB 1938 – Dignity in Travel Act Prohibiting Virtual Strip Searches.

"HCR 80 is a concurrent resolution...

The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) today announced several parameters for a nationwide private sector Registered Traveler (RT) program....

"These events took place roughly between 5:30 and 6:30 AM, November 13th in Terminal 2 of the San Diego International Airport. I'm writing this approximately 2 1/2 hours after the events transpired, and they are correct to the best of my recollection. I will admit to being particularly fuzzy on the exact order of events when dealing with the agents after getting my...

"On January 28, 2011, Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Administrator John Pistole announced that he would not expand the Screening Partnership Program (SSP) and denied SPP applications from five airports. The SPP was established as a pilot program in the Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001 … to allow TSA-certified contractors, under federal...

"TSA is in the process of implementing new pat-down procedures at checkpoints nationwide as one of our many layers of security to keep the traveling public safe. Pat-downs are one important tool to help TSA detect hidden and dangerous items such as explosives. Passengers should continue to expect an unpredictable mix of security layers that include explosives trace...

After his titanium hip replacement set off the metal detectors at Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport and triggered an enhanced pat-down search, former Minnesota Governor Jesse Ventura filed suit against Department of Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano and TSA Administrator John Pistole for violating his 4th Amendment right against unreasonable...

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On Campus

We've built Intellectual Takeout to provide you with quick, easy access to information. In time, we hope to become your one-stop-shop for the ideas of freedom. If your professor allows you to bring your laptop to class (if not, you can use an iPhone), we recommend keeping a tab open to Intellectual Takeout. As we continue to generate new content on the site, you will be able to fact check the...
When it comes to campus life injustices, student fees rank high on any list. On most campuses across the country a mandatory student fee is assessed to each student at the beginning of the year. A portion of this fee, which may be several hundred dollars, will go toward funding various political, religious, and interest groups.  A college requiring you to support groups espousing ideas which...
If you're not happy with the direction of the country and you want to take back your future, at some point you will have to do something. It's not enough to just know that we're going in the wrong direction. You actually have to step out and get involved. Most college campuses have conservative and libertarian student groups. Find one of them to join. Below is a list of some of the larger non-...
Now that you're at college and the initial excitement has worn off, maybe you're thinking that the course selection is a bit biased and you'd like some options. So how do you (the consumer) get the college (the business) to change up its offerings? It certainly won't be easy. Nevertheless it's something that should be done--particularly since you're footing the bill. A good, education in a free...
Whatever activism you choose to do on campus, you need to get your story out. A popular tactic used by the Left is to isolate and intimidate freedom-loving students. You're not alone and there are a lot of people in your city, state, and country that can probably support your efforts. They just need to know what is happening. Whenever you can, record in-class bias, discrimination against...
The reality is that most students (and people for that matter) won't speak out. It's called human nature and it was recognized in the Declaration of Independence: "...all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed." While you might feel alone when debating a teacher,...
In the land of the free and the home of the brave, speech codes are a particularly odious example of politically correct repression on many a college campus. In some ways, college campuses are the least free places for thinking and speech in America. Your best friend for fighting your school's repressive speech codes is the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE). Here's a short clip...
Running for office isn't easy, even in college. Not everyone is cut out for it, either. For those of you who are, this completely non-partisan section is for you. If you are inclined to pursue student government, we're not going to spend time on telling you how to get elected. A good place to go for ideas and training is CampusReform.org. Rather, we want to help you in office, as a believer in...

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